 © Electronics ECE 1312 Taaruf Nor Farahidah Za’bah Room number : E2-2-13.12 Phone number : 03-6196 4562 address : 

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© Electronics ECE 1312 Taaruf Nor Farahidah Za’bah Room number : E2-2-13.12 Phone number : 03-6196 4562 Email address :  adah510@iium.edu.my adah510@iium.edu.my  nfzabah@hotmail.com nfzabah@hotmail.com Website: http://staff.iium.edu.my/adah510http://staff.iium.edu.my/adah510

© Electronics ECE 1312

© Electronics ECE 1312

© Electronics ECE 1312 My rules Be punctual! Silent your handphone while in class Wear proper attire as to the University’s dress code Attendance is COMPULSORY

© Electronics ECE 1312 Course Assessment Method% Mid-term Test 25 Final Examination 50 Quizzes and Assignments 25

© Electronics ECE 1312 WeeksTopicsLearning Hours Task/Reading 1Introduction to Electronics: Brief History, Signals, Frequency Spectrum of Signals, Analog and Digital Signals, Amplifiers Chapter 1 2,3Semiconductor Materials and Diodes: Semiconductor Materials and Properties, The PN Junction, Diode Circuits: DC Analysis and Models, Diode Circuits: AC Equivalent Circuit, Other Diode Types. Chapter 2 4,5Diode Circuits: Rectifier Circuits, Zener Diode Circuits, Clipper and Clamper Circuits, Multiple- Diode Circuits. Chapter 3 MID TERM 18 th OCTOBER 2014

© Electronics ECE 1312 WeeksTopicsLearning Hours Task/Reading 6,7The Bipolar Junction Transistor: Transistor Structures, Current- Voltage Characteristics, Load Line and Modes of Operation, Voltage Transfer Characteristics, Basic Transistor Applications, Bipolar Transistor Biasing Chapter 4 8,9Basic BJT Amplifiers: Small-Signal Operation and Models, Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers: Common Emitter Amplifier, Common Collector Amplifier, Common-Base Amplifier Chapter 5

© Electronics ECE 1312 Weeks Topics Learning Hours Task/Reading 10,11 The Field Effect Transistor: Device Structure, Current-Voltage Characteristics, MOSFET Circuits at DC, DC Circuit Analyses of MOSFET, n-channel Enhancement for MOSFET as Load Device, Constant Current Biasing, Basic Applications of MOSFET. Chapter 6 12 Basic FET Amplifiers: Basics of FET Modeling, Common- Source Amplifier, Common Drain Amplifier, Common-Gate Amplifier Chapter 7 13, 14 Ideal Operational Amplifier and Op- Amp Circuits: Ideal Op-Amp, Inverting Amplifier, Summing Amplifier, Non-inverting Amplifier, Op-Amp Applications Chapter 8

© Electronics ECE 1312 Text Book Motakabber, S. M. A, Ibrahimy, M. I., Nordin, Anis, (2012), Fundamentals of Microelectronic Circuits, Pearson. Recommended references supporting the course Neamen D.A., (2007), Microelectronics Circuit Analysis and Design, McGraw Hill. Sedra S.A., (2009), Microelectronic Circuits, Oxford

© Electronics ECE 1312 EVALUATION

© Electronics ECE 1312 Fill up the following blanks: The unit of EMF of a battery is---------------and 1 mV = -------------Volt The unit of power is----------------and the unit of energy is--------------- The unit of capacitance is-------------------- Volt 0.001 WattJoule Farad

© Electronics ECE 1312 VAVA VBVB What is V A – V B ? What about V B – V A ? What is the value of V B if V A = 10 V ? Node Voltages 4 V - 4 V 6 V

© Electronics ECE 1312 = 4/2 = 2 A Branch Current Equation A B I 22 Branch Current Equation is based on Ohm’s Law (V A – V B ) / 2 = I C D 22 I

© Electronics ECE 1312 Kirchhoff Current Law Kirchhoff Voltage Law

© Electronics ECE 1312 What will be the polarity of the voltage across the resistor if the current direction is as follows: I + - VRVR

© Electronics ECE 1312 10  44 Which branch has the bigger current? If the voltage across the 10  is 5V, what is the voltage across the 4  ? What is the total resistance? The 4  branch 5 V 2.86 

© Electronics ECE 1312 Chapter 1 Introduction to Electronics

© Electronics ECE 1312 PN Junction - Diode

© Electronics ECE 1312 Bipolar Junction Transistor: BJT Emitter Base Collector

© Electronics ECE 1312 Field Effect Transistor: FET

© Electronics ECE 1312 Passive and Active Components Passive Components: Do no require power supply for its operation or the device which electrical characteristics does not depend on the power supply Examples: Resistor, capacitor, inductor Active components: Do require power supply for its operation or the device which electrical characteristics depend on the power supply Examples: Transistors such as BJT and FET

© Electronics ECE 1312 Electronic Circuits An electronic circuit generally contains both the passive and active components. Therefore a dc power supply is essential for the operation of its active components. An electronic processing or amplifier devices also need different power source than its dc operating power source called input signal. This input signal characteristics and power can be modified by the electronic circuit with the presence of its dc operating power supply. The processed input signal which is obtained from the electronic circuit is called output signal. Block diagram of an electronic circuit (Amplifier)

© Electronics ECE 1312 Analog and Digital Signals An electrical signal is a time varying voltage or current which bears the information by altering the characteristics of the voltage or current. In an analog signal the characteristics of the voltage or current which represents the information can be any value. Digital signal must have discrete value, it is said quantization. In a digital signal the characteristics of the voltage or current which represents the information has only two values and sometimes it is called binary signal. Analog signal Digital signal

© Electronics ECE 1312 Representation of Signal A sinusoidal voltage when it is superimposed on a DC voltage can be represented as Sinusoidal voltage superimposed on dc voltage V BEQ

© Electronics ECE 1312 Amplifier Characteristics Equivalent circuit of a voltage amplifier An equivalent circuit of a voltage amplifier is shown in bellow. This amplifier is mainly used to amplify the voltage. The input parallel resistance of the amplifier is very large and the output series resistance is very low, these characteristics are essential for a voltage amplifier. The voltage gain of the amplifier is defined as the ratio between output voltage and input voltage, mathematically The gain of a voltage amplifier is unit less.

© Electronics ECE 1312

© Electronics ECE 1312 Example 2: A load resistance of 475Ω is connected with the output of a voltage amplifier as shown in Fig. The output voltage across the load resistance is 10.5V when the amplifier input is 150mV. Determine the open circuit voltage gain of the amplifier. Assume that the output resistance of the amplifier is 25Ω.

© Electronics ECE 1312 1.Must calculate v i 2.Calculate the open circuit voltage, A v v i 3.Then use KVL to find out the voltage across R L Answer: 1.6V

© Electronics ECE 1312 Ex. 1: The open circuit voltage of a voltage amplifier is 7.5V when its input is connected to a signal source. Assume that the signal source voltage is 3.0V and its resistance is 1.5kΩ respectively. If the input resistance of the amplifier is 5kΩ, what would be the voltage gain of the amplifier. R S = 1.5kΩ v S = 3Vv o = 7.5 V R i = 5kΩ 1.Must calculate v i 2.We know that the open circuit voltage, A v v i = 7.5 V 3.Calculate A V Answer: 3.25

© Electronics ECE 1312 Ex. 2: The open circuit voltage of a voltage amplifier is 12.5V when its input is connected to a signal source. Assume that the signal source voltage is 2.5 V and its resistance is 2.0kΩ respectively. If the input and output resistance of the amplifier is 5kΩ and 50Ω respectively. The amplifier output is connected to drive a load resistance 500Ω, determine the output voltage across the load resistance. R S = 2.0kΩ v S = 2.5 V R i = 5kΩ R 0 = 50 Ω R L = 500 Ω Answer: 11.36 V = 12.5 V 1.We know that the open circuit voltage, A v v i = 12.5 V 2.Use KVL or voltage divider to calculate output across the load.

© Electronics ECE 1312 An equivalent circuit of a current amplifier is shown in bellow. This amplifier is mainly used to amplify the current. The input parallel resistance of the amplifier is very low and the output parallel resistance is very large, these characteristics are essential for a current amplifier. The current gain of the amplifier is defined as the ratio between output current and input current, mathematically The gain of a current amplifier is unit less. Equivalent circuit of a current amplifier Amplifier Characteristics Cont.

© Electronics ECE 1312 Example 1:

© Electronics ECE 1312 R L = 450 ΩR O = 2.5 k  The input current, i i is 0.5 mA Answer: 5.72 V Example 3: 1.Calculate the value of the short circuit current, A i i i 2.Use current divider to calculate i o 3.Use Ohm’s Law to find output voltage.

© Electronics ECE 1312 R O = 4.7 k  Answer: 170.74 Example 2: 1.i o = v o / R O = v o / 4.7 2.i i = v i / R i = v i / 5 3.So, current gain = i o / i i = v o 4.7 vivi 5 4. What is v o /v i ? That is the voltage gain, 160.5 5. Replace in step 3 to calculate current gain

© Electronics ECE 1312 Amplifier Characteristics Cont. An equivalent circuit of a transconductance amplifier is shown bellow. This amplifier input parallel resistance is very large and the output parallel resistance is also very large, these characteristics are essential for a transconductance amplifier. The gain of the amplifier is defined as the ratio between output current and input voltage, mathematically. The unit of the transconductance amplifier gain is A/V or Siemens. Equivalent circuit of a transconductance amplifier

© Electronics ECE 1312 Amplifier Characteristics Cont. An equivalent circuit of a transresistance amplifier is shown in bellow. This amplifier input parallel resistance is very low and the output series resistance is also very low, these characteristics are essential for a transconductance amplifier. The gain of the amplifier is defined as the ratio between output voltage and input current, mathematically The unit of the transresistance amplifier gain is V/A or Ohm. Equivalent circuit of a transresistance amplifier

© Electronics ECE 1312 Signal Source or Generator A voltage source is modeled by a voltage generator with a series resistance called source resistance as shown in bellow. For an ideal voltage source the series resistance is 0. A voltage source can be replaced by an equivalent current source using Norton theorem. Similarly, a current source is modeled by a current generator with a parallel resistance called source resistance as shown in bellow. For an ideal current source the parallel resistance is infinite. A current source can be replaced by an equivalent voltage source using Thevenin theorem. Voltage source Current source

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