How do we use the H-W Formula? p 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1
19 Hardy-Weinberg describes the status quo and provides a way to describe change. 5 conditions must be met: Allele frequencies won’t change if… 1. The population is large 2. Mating is random 3. There is no mutation 4. No immigration or emigration 5. There is no selection
20 All the alleles in a population must equal 100% Say A and a are the alleles at a locus Diploid organisms have 2 loci p = the frequency of A q = the frequency of a So the frequency of p + q must equal 100% or 1.0
21 Frequency of possible combinations of p and q for diploid organisms (p+q) (p+q) =(p+q) (p+q) = p 2 + 2pq + q 2
In a population of 1000 individuals, 360 of the individuals have an attached earlobe, a recessive trait. This population is in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. How many individual are heterozygous for this trait?
Scotland has the highest percentage of redheads in the world at 13%. Assuming Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, calculate the frequency of p and q.