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**Physics Principles and Problems**

Representing Motion Chapter 2 Physics Principles and Problems Zitzewitz, Elliot, Haase, Harper, Herzog, Nelson, Nelson, Schuler and Zorn McGraw Hill, 2005

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**Motion An object whose position changes over time.**

Motion Diagram - shows the positions of a moving object at successive times.

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Visualizing Motion Coordinate System - shows the location of the zero point (origin) and direction of an object in motion. Arrows can be utilized to show an objects position and distance traveled.

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Vectors and Scalars Vectors are quantities that have both magnitude (size) and direction. 0 15m Scalars are quantities that are numbers without direction 4C, 5m, 39s, 22m/s

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Resultant Vectors Vector that represents the sum of two or more vectors. Based upon their direction some vectors can be negative.

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**Time Intervals and Displacement**

Time Interval - equals the final time (tf) minus the initial time (ti) ∆ t = tf - ti Displacement - equals the final position (df) minus the initial position (di) ∆ d = df - di

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Position - Time Graphs By plotting the time (t) and position (d) data of a particular object a position-time graph can be generated. Remember that d represents that object’s instantaneous position. t d 30 0 55 0

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**Average Velocity v = ∆d / ∆t = df - di / tf - ti**

Defined as the change in position divided by the time during which the change occurred. v = ∆d / ∆t = df - di / tf - ti Average velocity is represented by the slope of the line in a position-time graph

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Speed vs. Velocity Speed is how fast an object in moving. It is a scalar quantity and therefore can never be negative. Velocity is speed with direction. It is a vector quantity and therefore can be negative. Instantaneous velocity is the speed and direction of an object at a particular instant.

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**Equation of Motion for Average Velocity**

An object’s position is equal to the average velocity multiplied by time plus the initial position. d = vt + di Use algebra and the equation v = d / t to solve for any of the variables.

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