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2 Chapter The Management Environment Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-2 Learning Objectives Describe the new economy and how it’s affecting the way organizations are managed Explain globalization and its impact on organizations Discuss how society’s expectations are influencing managers and organizations Describe how the workforce is changing and its impact on the way organizations are managed Discuss trust as the essence of leadership Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-3 How Has the Economy Changed? 1980s – The U.S. economy was growing and tax rates were low – Low inflation and low interest rates fueled consumer spending – Individuals took risks by investing in the stock market, buying homes, and starting their own businesses 2008 – Gas prices hit $4 plus per gallon – Adjustable mortgages adjusted upward with higher monthly payments due, many consumers couldn’t keep up Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-4 The Economic Crisis Began with turmoil in mortgage markets Spread to businesses when broader credit markets collapsed Called the worst since the Great Depression Foreclosures, financial recession, a huge public debt, and widespread social problems from job losses signal that the U.S. and global economic environments have changed and are continuing to change Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-5 What Will the “New” Normal Be Like? The New Normal – “Capitalism will be different” Timothy Geithner, the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury – Increased role of government, especially in financial markets – Government spending is now at levels not seen since World War Two – Public concerns about the growing budget deficit and increased government intervention in the economy. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-6 Technology and the Manager’s Job Continuing advances in technology make work more efficient and improve available information and communication Technology – Any equipment, tools, or operating methods that are designed to make work more efficient Intranet – A private computer network that uses Internet technology and is accessible only to organizational members Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-7 What Is Globalization and How Does It Affect Organizations? Global Village – The concept of a boundaryless world where goods and services are produced and marketed worldwide Multinational Corporation (MNC) – Any type of international company that maintains operations in multiple countries. Multidomestic Corporation – An MNC that decentralizes management and other decisions to the local country where it’s doing business. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-8 Other Types of Global Organizations Global Corporation – An MNC that centralizes management and other decisions in the home country Transnational (Borderless) Organization – A structural arrangement for global organizations that eliminates artificial geographical barriers. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-9 How Do Organizations Go Global? Global Sourcing – Purchasing materials or labor from around the world wherever it is cheapest Exporting – Making products domestically and selling them abroad Importing – Acquiring products made abroad and selling them domestically Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-10 Going Global (cont.) Licensing – An agreement primarily used by manufacturing businesses in which an organization gives another the right, for a fee, to make or sell its products, using its technology or product specifications Franchising – An agreement primarily used by service businesses in which an organization gives another organization the right, for a fee, to use importing its name and operating methods Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-11 Going Global (cont.) Global Strategic Alliance – A partnership between an organization and a foreign company partner(s) in which resources and knowledge are shared in developing new products or building production facilities Joint Venture – A specific type of strategic alliance in which the partners agree to form a separate, independent organization for some business purpose Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-12 Going Global (cont.) Foreign Subsidiary – A direct investment in a foreign country that involves setting up a separate and independent facility or office Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-13 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-14 What Do Managers Need to Know? Parochialism – A narrow focus in which managers see things only through their own eyes and from their own perspective All countries have different values, morals, customs, political and economic systems, and laws, all of which can affect how a business is managed Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-15 Hofstede’s Framework Geert Hofstede – Studied differences in culture and found that managers and employees vary on five value dimensions of national culture: 1.Power Distance 2.Individualism vs. Collectivism 3.Achievement vs. Nurturing 4.Uncertainty Avoidance 5.Long-term vs. Short-term Orientation Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-16 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-17 GLOBE Findings Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) – An ongoing cross-cultural investigation of leadership and national culture – Identified nine dimensions on which national cultures differ – Confirm that Hofstede’s dimensions are still valid, and extend his research rather than replace it Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-18 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-19 What Does Society Expect from Organizations and Managers? Green Management – When managers recognize and consider the impact of their organization and its practices on the natural environment – The idea of being environmentally friendly or green affects many aspects of business Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-20 How Can Organizations Demonstrate Socially Responsible Actions? Social Responsibility – A business firm’s intention, beyond its legal and economic obligations, to do the right things and act in ways that are good for society Social Obligation – When a business firm engages in social actions because of its obligation to meet certain economic and legal responsibilities Social Responsiveness – When a business firm engages in social actions in response to some popular social need Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-21 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-22 How Can Managers Become More Ethical? Ethics – Commonly refers to a set of rules or principles that defines right and wrong conduct Code of Ethics – A formal document that states an organization’s primary values and the ethical rules it expects managers and nonmanagerial employees to follow Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-23 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-24 How Does Today’s Workforce Impact the Way We Manage? Workforce Diversity – Ways in which people in a workforce are similar and different from one another in terms of Gender Age Race Sexual Orientation Ethnicity Cultural Background Physical Abilities and Disabilities Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-25 What Does the Workforce Look Like Today? Those born before 1946 - 6 percent of the workforce Baby boomers, born between 1946 and 1964 - 41.5 percent of the workforce Generation X, born 1965 to 1977 - 29 percent of the workforce Gen Y, born 1978 to 1994 - 24 percent of the workforce. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-26 How Are Managers Adapting to a Changing Workforce? Family-Friendly Benefits – Benefits that provide a wide range of scheduling options that allow employees more flexibility at work, accommodating their needs for work/life balance Contingent Workforce – Part-time, temporary, and contract workers who are available for hire on an as-needed basis Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-27 Can Organizations Improve Customer Service? Creating a Customer –Responsive Culture – Type of employee (friendly, outgoing) – Employees need freedom to meet changing customer-service requirements – Employees must be empowered with decision discretion – Employees must be good listeners Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-28 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
2-29 How Can Organizations Improve Quality? Continuous Improvement – An organization’s commitment to continually improving the quality of a product or service Kaizen – The Japanese term for an organization’s commitment to continuous improvement Work Process Engineering – Radical or quantum change in an organization. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
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2-31 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
How Organizations Go Global
Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
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