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Introduction to Earth/Environmental Science

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Earth/Environmental Science"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Earth/Environmental Science

2 Lab Safety Rules Use lab only with directed by the teacher.
ALWAYS wear safety goggles. Report any accident or incident to the teacher Confine long hair and and loose clothing whenever working with flames or chemicals Never work with chemicals without checking labels. 2

3 Lab Safety Rules cont. Never taste substances without teacher’s direction. Place broken glass and disposables in appropriate container. Wash hands before leaving the lab. 3

4 What is Earth Science? Earth Science
The name for the group of sciences that deals with Earth and its neighbors in space. 4

5 Branches of Earth Science
Astronomy Study of objects past the atmosphere Ex: Stars, moon, comets B. Meteorology Study of the atmosphere Processes of weather and climate  Ex: clouds, rain, hurricanes C. Geology Study of materials that make-up the Earth Processes that form and change those materials Ex: rocks, minerals, earthquakes, volcanoes D. Oceanography Study of the oceans  Ex: trenches, marine animals

6 Earth’s Major Spheres/Systems
Hydrosphere All water on Earth Oceans, rivers, streams, lakes & seas 97% of the water is salt water 3% of water is freshwater Atmosphere Gaseous layers above the surface of Earth Weather and Climate on Earth Makes life possible on Earth

7 Biosphere Geosphere/Lithosphere
Beneath both the Hydrosphere and Atmosphere Three Parts Core Mantle Crust Biosphere All organisms on Earth Environments where organisms live

8 What is Environmental Science?
The study of how humans use resources and the affect it has on the Earth

9 What Environmental Science deals with?
Renewable Resources Plants, animals, water, wind Nonrenewable Resources Coal, oil, natural gas Population Growth Environmental Problems Pollution, global warming Natural Hazards Flooding, droughts, earthquakes

10 Scientific Method /Experimental Design
An organized plan for gathering, organizing and communication of information GOAL Solve a problem Better understand something

11 Experimental Design Problem/Question What do you want to know?
Research Hypothesis Experiment Test your hypothesis Collect and Analyze Data Conclusion Accept, reject, or modify the hypothesis

12 Evolution of a Scientific Idea
Hypothesis  An educated guess 2. Theory Extensively tested hypothesis Can be modified with new data Still can be proven wrong 3. Scientific Law Generalized rule to explain observations Summarizes a pattern in nature Ex: Law of Gravity

13 13

14 Parts of an Experiment Variable Independent Variable
Factor that changes Two types Independent variable Dependent variable Independent Variable Fact YOU change AKA: Manipulated Variable Dependent Variable Factor that changes BECAUSE you changed something AKA: Responding Variable

15 Constant Trial Factors that never are changed from test to test
Repeating the experiment 3 times for best result

16 Experimental Design Practices
Asking Questions and Defining Problems Developing and Using Models Planning and Carrying Out Investigations Analyzing and Interpreting Data Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions Engaging in Argument from Evidence Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

17 Measurement Types LENGTH Straight line distance between two points
How long something is SI unit = meters (m) Tools for finding Meter stick or ruler

18 Temperature Amount of heat given off by an object Molecular Motion
How hot or cold something is SI unit = Kelvin (K) ºC, ºF Tools for finding Thermometer

19 MASS How much Matter is in an object SI unit: kilogram (kg)
Tools for Finding Balances or scales Note: Mass and Weight are two different things Mass never changes from place to place

20 VOLUME Amount of Space an object takes up Units: L, mL, cm3
Tools: graduated cylinder or ruler Three Different Methods for finding Volume Regular object Irregular object Liquid

21 Finding Volume Liquids (water) Regular Object (block)
Place the liquid in a graduated cylinder and read the level Regular Object (block) L * W * H Irregular Object (rock) Do Water Displacement Subtract water level without object from water level with object

22 Density Mass per unit Volume Unit: g/mL or g/cm3 Formula
Density = mass ÷ volume Density of water is 1 g/mL Less means float More means sink

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