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ST120 Concorde Career College, Portland

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Presentation on theme: "ST120 Concorde Career College, Portland"— Presentation transcript:

1 ST120 Concorde Career College, Portland
Digestive System ST120 Concorde Career College, Portland

2 Digestive System Objectives: Define the term digestion.
Describe the functions of the digestive system.

3 Digestive System Objectives:
List and identify the structures of the digestive system and describe the function of each. List and identify the accessory structures of the digestive system and describe the function of each.

4 Digestive System Objectives:
Describe the importance of adequate nutrition. Describe the mechanism by which the digestive system helps to maintain homeostasis.

5 Digestive System Objectives:
Describe common diseases, disorders, and conditions of the digestive system including signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and available treatment options. Demonstrate knowledge of medical terminology related to the digestive system verbally and in the written form.

6 Digestive System Digestion Mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic process by which ingested food is converted into material suitable for use at the cellular level.

7 Functions of the Digestive System
Digestion Absorption Note: The digestive tract is also referred to as the alimentary tract or canal.

8 Wall of the Digestive Tract
From outermost to innermost Serosa (visceral peritoneum) Muscularis (2 layers) Submucosa Mucosa



11 Peritoneum Parietal - lines the abdominal cavity
Visceral - covers the organs

12 Mesentery Fanlike peritoneal fold that is attached posteriorly and attaches to the small intestine Contains blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic structures

13 Mesocolon Fanlike peritoneal fold that is attached posteriorly and attaches to the large intestine Contains blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic structures

14 Diseased Mesocolon

15 Greater Omentum Flap-like peritoneal structure containing fat that extends from the greater curvature of the stomach to the pelvis

16 Torsion of the Greater Omentum

17 Lesser Omentum Extends between the lesser curvature of the stomach and the liver

18 Digestive Organs Organs of the digestive tract (pathway)
Accessory organs

19 Main Structures of the Digestive Tract
Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small Intestine Large Intestine

20 Oral Cavity Functions: Ingestion Prepare ingested items for digestion
Begin digestion of starch


22 Oral Cavity

23 Teeth Deciduous Permanent Structure



26 Mastication & Deglutition
Salivary glands Muscles Deglutition


28 Salivary Duct Stone

29 Pharynx and Esophagus Convey ingested items to the stomach

30 Deglutition Note movement of food bolus

31 Impacted Esophageal Food Bolus

32 Stomach Divisions Curvatures Sphincters Muscles Rugae Gastric Juices


34 Rugae

35 Gastrectomy Specimen

36 Stomach Interior Goblet Cells - Produce mucus
Parietal Cells - Produce hydrochloric acid Chief Cells - Produce pepsin

37 Small Intestine Duodenum Jejunum Ileum

38 Villi

39 Large Intestine Cecum Ascending colon Transverse colon
Ileocecal valve Vermiform appendix Ascending colon Transverse colon Descending colon Sigmoid colon Rectum Anus


41 Colectomy Specimen

42 Colectomy Specimen (Opened)

43 Rectum and Anus Rectum Anus Valves of Houston Anal columns
Anal sinuses Anal valves Internal sphincter External sphincter

44 Accessory Structures Liver Gallbladder Pancreas

45 Liver Largest glandular organ in the body RUQ
Two main lobes (right and left) Two small inferior lobes on the right


47 Gallbladder Located on the inferior surface of the liver Stores bile

48 Biliary Tree

49 Biliary Tree


51 Pancreas Endocrine gland Exocrine gland
Extends from the duodenum (head) to the spleen (tail)



54 Digestion Breakdown of foods into usable substances

55 Endoscopic Procedures
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy: visualization of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum Colonoscopy: visualization of the inner surface of the entire colon from the rectum to the cecum. Sigmoidoscopy: visualization of the sigmoid colon Capsule endoscopy: a tiny video camera in a capsule that the pt. swallows. For 8 hrs it passes through the small intestine and transmits images of the walls of the small intestine.

56 Colonoscopy

57 Intestinal Disorders Diverticulosis: the condition of having diverticula small pouch or sac occurring in the lining or wall of a tubular organ such as the esophagus or colon Enteritis: inflammation of the small intestine caused by eating or drinking substances contaminated with viral and bacterial pathogens Gastroenteritis Irritable bowel syndrome: (IBS) unknown cause with symptoms that include cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and/or diarrhea.

58 Diverticular Disease

59 Some Procedures Gastrectmy Cholecystectomy Whipple pancreatectomy
Diverticulectomy Ileectomy Jejunectomy Duodenectomy Colectomy Sigmoidectomy Proctectomy

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