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© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. ©NIH 1 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.)

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Presentation on theme: "© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. ©NIH 1 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.)"— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. ©NIH 1 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.)

2 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. In scientific notation, approximately how many neurons are in the human nervous system? 1 x 10 11

3 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Assume that we could stop all sensory information from reaching the brain (but the spinal cord is kept intact) and keep a subject alive and alert. – A crab pinches at the subjects fingers and that subject withdraws their hand. What is this an example of? How can it occur with?

4 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Neurons & Glial cells 2 main cells of the nervous system? 3 type of neurons and their function? 2 major divisions of the nervous system? Sensory (take info in), Inter (interpret), Motor (act) Central (brain and spinal cord) Peripheral (sensory, motor neurons)

5 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Sensory; motor Afferent signals are carried by ____ neurons while efferent are carried by ______. Division of the PNS that controls smooth muscle. If a peripheral axon is breached, the proximal piece of the axon may reform a connection with the distal piece of axon using __________ for guidance. Autonomic NS Schwan cells

6 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Review What are glial cells? Explain the role of the myelin sheath. What are the areas of unmyelinated axon called? Glial cells shaped like stars mainly responsible for regulating chem concentrations in the ECF and nurturing neurons. Neural cells that support the neurons by cleaning up, nurturing, or insulating neurons and synapses. A myelin sheath surrounds axons and insulates them, preventing messages from spreading between adjacent axons. Unmyelinated regions are known as the nodes of Ranvier. astrocytes

7 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Review Glial cells of the peripheral nervous system that provide segments of the myelin sheath for the PNS neurons’ axons. A type of glial cell in the central nervous system that forms myelin sheaths. Glial cells involved in protecting the brain from infection. It is also the smallest glial cells Neuroglia of the PNS that help maintain the extracellular environment for ganglia. Schwann Cells Oligodendrocytes microglia Satellite cells

8 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Where most of the neuron’s organelles are contained? Branch like structures with a high number of plasma receptors. Long tail-like projection of the neuron by which an electrical signal is sent in one direction. Junction between an axon and its target cell. The bud at the end of a branch of an axon; forms synapses with another neuron; sends information to that neuron. What are these chemical messages released by the terminal button/synaptic terminal The soma dendrites axons Synapse Synaptic Terminal Neurotransmitters

9 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. a. control of the central nervous system; control of the peripheral nervous system b. control of neurons; control of neuroglia c. sensory input to the CNS; carries motor commands to muscles or glands d. carries motor commands to muscles or glands; sensory input to the CNS The two functional divisions of the peripheral nervous system are the afferent and efferent divisions. What are their respective functions?

10 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Damage to somatic motor neurons of the efferent division of the PNS would affect the ability to: a. learn new facts. b. stimulate skeletal muscle. c. experience sensory stimuli. d. remember past events.

11 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. The functional classification of neurons that are responsible for integrating sensory information with motor output are called ______. These neurons are located __________. a. motor neurons; in the anterior horn of the spinal cord b. proprioceptors; in skeletal muscles and joints c. interneurons; almost exclusively in the CNS d. interoceptors; in the digestive, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems

12 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the CNS neuroglial cells function as phagocytic cells? a. satellite cells b. microglia c. oligodendrocytes d. astrocytes

13 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Neuroglia of the PNS include __ and __, and their respective functions are __ and __. a. astrocytes; oligodendrocytes; guide axon regeneration; myelinate axons b. ependymal cells; Schwann cells; form cerebrospinal fluid; form myelin sheath c. satellite cells; Schwann cells; regulate O 2, CO 2, nutrient and transmitter levels; myelinate axons d. microglia; ependymal cells; regulate environment around neurons; form cerebrospinal fluid

14 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Which type of neuroglia would be found lining the hollow regions of the CNS? a. astrocytes b. microglia c. ependymal cells d. oligodendrocytes

15 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Which structure of a neuron is capable of propagating an electrical impulse? a. dendrite b. axon c. cell body d. perikaryon

16 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. One axon propagates action potentials at 50 meters per second; another carries them at 1 meter per second. Which axon is myelinated? a. axon that propagates at 50 meters per second b. axon that propagates at 1 meter per second

17 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. You have 2 minutes to draw and fully label a junction where a neuron is communicating with another neuron using the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The most detailed (best labeled) illustration wins 3 points.

18 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

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