Presentation on theme: " Why under the Tang and Song dynasty did old aristocratic families fade and much larger upper class emerge? The Tang restored the civil service exam."— Presentation transcript:
Why under the Tang and Song dynasty did old aristocratic families fade and much larger upper class emerge? The Tang restored the civil service exam making talent and education more important than noble birth in winning power. Turn in focus questions and begin to study… Bell Ringer
Quick Study for Quiz Rise of the Mongols - Genghis Khan - Mongol Success Readings from Marco Polo. Agenda/Objectives
Nomadic people made up of different clans. Clan leader- Temujin unifies the clans and conquers his rivals with no mercy. 1206 accepted the title as Genghis Khan. Rise of the Mongols
Next 21 years Genghis conquered much of Asia. Goal = China - Invaded the Jin in 1215. Quickly attention shifted to Islamic region of West Mongolia. - Mongol traders and an ambassador murdered in this region. Rise of the Mongols
Genghis revenge: Destroyed city after city - Utrar - Samarkand - Bukhara Slaughtering everyone in their path. 1221 – Central Asia was under Mongol control. “In retribution for every hair on their heads it seemed that a hundred thousand heads rolled in the dust”
Brilliant organizer: assembled Mongol warriors into a powerful fighting force. Grouped into warriors of 10,000. - 1,000 man brigades - 100 man companies - 10 man platoons Battle-proven and loyal men in command of these units. Why was Genghis successful?
Trickery: - Small Mongol cavalry would attack and flee, enemy would give chase and the rest of the Mongol army would appear and slaughter. - Use of life like dummies and prisoners dressed up as soldiers to make army look larger. Spy network Genghis success cont.
New weapons: - Captured Chinese engineers built catapults - Gunpowder Genghis success cont.
Cruelty: Terrifying enemy into surrender. If towns refused when captured everyone was killed. Many towns heard about the cruelty of the mongols and surrendered without a fight. Genghis success cont.
Genghis Khan died in 1227 from illness. Rulers continued: - Expand empire - Inflicting terror to people Less than 50 years conquered territory from China to Poland. - Largest unified land empire in history. Mongol Empire
1260: Mongol empire divided into 4 large Khanates, each one ruled by a descendant of Genghis. Mongol rulers: Many areas that were invaded never recovered. - ancient irrigation systems destroyed. Over time – Adopted aspects of the culture of the people they ruled. The Khanates
Mid 1200s – Mid 1300s: Imposed stability and peace across territory. Guaranteed safe passage of trade caravans, travelers, and missionaries. - Gun powder reached Europe. - Bubonic Plague reached Europe. Mongol Peace
Kublai Khan – Grandson of Genghis assumed the title of Great Khan in 1260. 1279: Conquers China. - Yuan Dynasty lasted until 1368. China reunited after 300 years. Mongol control opened China to trade. Kublai and successors tolerated Chinese culture. Empire of the Great Khan
Attacked in 1274 and 1281. Forced Koreans to build and sail boats (devastated Korea) Second fleet – 150,000 Mongols, Chinese, and Korean solders. 53 days Japanese soldiers fought them to a stand still. Day 54 – Typhoon wiped out the fleet, “Kamikaze” or “divine wind”. Failure to conquer Japan
“Marco Polo in China” Two Primary Sources: 1. “Cabaluc: Concerning The Palace Of The Great Khan” 2. “Concerning The City of Cambaluc” Read by yourself and analyze the document. What was the world Marco Polo knew before going to China and what is the world he knows after? What is the general theme? What did Marco Polo observe? What did he mention about the Capital Cambaluc? What did Marco Polo make specific note of and why do you think? What can you conclude about the Mongol control of China from the Marco Polo observations? Reading
Answer these questions: What struggles did the Mongols have ruling over the Chinese and why? What did they do to improve their rule in China? Homework