11 2. REASONING LEARNING TARGET The ability of the student to use their knowledge to reason and solve problems.
12 3. SKILLS LEARNING TARGET The ability of the student to demonstrate achievement-related skills like conducting experiments, playing basketball, and operating computers.
13 4. PRODUCTS LEARNING TARGET The ability of the student to create achievement-related products such as written reports, oral presentations, and art products.
14 5. AFFECTIVE LEARNING TARGET The attainment of affective traits such as attitudes, values, interest and self- efficacy. Students’ attitudes about school and learning
15 What are the characteristics of a high quality assessment? Clarity of learning targetsAppropriateness of assessment methodsProperties of assessment methods
16 5 CATEGORIES OF ASSESSMENT METHODS Written-Response InstrumentsProduct Rating ScalesPerformance TestsOral QuestioningObservation and Self Reports
17 1. WRITTEN RESPONSE INSTRUMENTS Objective tests are appropriate for assessing the various levels of hierarchy of educational objectives.
18 1. WRITTEN RESPONSE INSTRUMENTS Multiple choice tests are constructed to test higher order thinking skills.
19 1. WRITTEN RESPONSE INSTRUMENTS Essays can test the students grasp of the higher level cognitive skills particularly in the areas of application analysis, synthesis and judgment.
20 2. PRODUCT RATING SCALESProducts that are frequently rated in education are book reports, maps, charts, diagrams, notebooks, essays and creative endeavors of all sorts.
21 2. PRODUCT RATING SCALESTo develop a product rating scale for the various products in education, the teacher must possess prototype products over his/her years of experience
22 3. PERFORMANCE TESTSIt is used to determine whether or not an individual behaves in a certain (usually desired) way when asked to complete a particular task.
23 3. PERFORMANCE TESTSChecklist is the most frequently used measurement instrument. It consists of a list of behaviors that makes up a certain type of performance.
24 Performance Checklist in Solving a mathematics problem (example) identifies the given informationidentifies what is being askeduses variables to replace the unknownformulates the equationperforms algebraic operationsobtains an answerchecks if the answer makes sense
25 4. ORAL QUESTIONING“The Epitome of a teacher , was said to have handled his classes solely based on questioning and oral instructions”--- Socrates
26 to assess the students’ stock knowledge 4. ORAL QUESTIONINGOral Questioning is an appropriate assessment method when the objectives are:to assess the students’ stock knowledgeto determine the students’ ability to communicate ideas in coherent verbal sentences
27 5. OBSERVATION AND SELF REPORTS A tally sheet is a device often used by teachers to record the frequency of student behaviors, activities or remarks.
28 5. OBSERVATION AND SELF REPORTS A self-checklist is a list of several characteristics or activities presented to the subjects of a study, it is often employed by teachers when they want to diagnose or appraise the performance of students from the point of view of the students themselves.
29 5. OBSERVATION AND SELF REPORTS Observation and Self Reports are useful supplementary assessment methods when used in conjunction with oral questioning and performance test.
30 What are the characteristics of a high quality assessment? Clarity of learning targetsAppropriateness of assessment methodsProperties of assessment methods
31 PROPERTIES OF ASSESSMENT METHODS Teachers follow a number of procedures in order to ensure that an entire assessment is valid or reliable.
32 PROPERTIES OF ASSESSMENT METHODS ValidityReliabilityFairnessPracticality and EfficiencyEthics in Assessment
33 1. VALIDITYthe extent to which the test serves its purpose or the efficiency with which it intends to measure.
34 1. VALIDITYthe appropriateness, correctness, meaningfulness and usefulness of the specific conclusions that a teacher reaches regarding the teaching-learning situation.
35 1. VALIDITYHow is validity determined?Content validityFace validityCriterion-related validityConstruct validity
36 CONTENT VALIDITY - Criteria Did the teachers cover sufficient material for most students to be able to answer the item correctly?Does the item reflect the degree of emphasis received during instruction?Do students have adequate experience with the type of task posed by the item?
39 1. VALIDITYHow is validity determined?Content validityFace validityCriterion-related validityConstruct validity
40 FACE VALIDITYrefers to the outward appearance of the test.
41 CRITERION-RELATED VALIDITY a more important type of validity. The test item is judged against a specific criterion.
42 CONSTRUCT VALIDITYA “construct” is another term for a factor and we already know that a group of variables that correlate highly with each other form a factor. A technique called factor analysis is required to determine the construct of validity of an item.
43 **suggestions for enhancing the validity of classroom assessment** Prepare a table of specifications (TOS).Construct appropriate test items.Formulate directions that are brief, clear, and concise.Consider the reading vocabulary of the examinees. The test should not be made up jargon.
44 5. Make the sentence structure of your test items simple. 6 5.Make the sentence structure of your test items simple. 6.Never have an identifiable pattern of answers. 7. Arrange the test items from easy to difficult. 8. Provide adequate time for student to complete the assessment. 9. Use different methods to assess the same thing. 10. Use the test only for intended purpose.
45 2. RELIABILITYThe Reliability of an assessment method refers to its consistency.It also a term that is synonymous with dependability or stability.
46 (METHODS IN ESTIMATING THE RELIABILITY OF A GOOD MEASURING INSTRUMENT) How is reliability determined?(METHODS IN ESTIMATING THE RELIABILITY OF A GOOD MEASURING INSTRUMENT)Test-Retest MethodThe same measuring instrument is administered to the same group of subjects over different time periods.
47 Split-Half MethodThe test in this method may only be administered once, but the test items are divided into two halves.The reliability of the test is calculated using the Spearman-Brown Formula and Kuder-Richardson Formula.
49 **suggestions for enhancing the reliability of classroom assessment** Use a sufficient number of items or tasks. A longer test is more reliable.Use independent raters or observers who can provide similar or top the same performances.Make sure the assessment procedures and scoring are objective.Continue the assessment until the results are consistent.
50 5. Eliminate or reduce the influence of extraneous events or factors. 6. Assess the difficulty level of the test. 7. Use shorter assessments more frequently rather than a few long assessments.
51 3. FAIRNESSThis pertains to the intent that each question should be made as clear as possible to the examinees and the test is absent of any biases.An assessment procedure needs to be fair.
52 3. FAIRNESSStudents need to know exactly what the learning targets are and what method of assessment will be used. Assessment has to be viewed as an opportunity to learn rather than an opportunity to weed out poor and slow learners.
53 3. FAIRNESSFairness also implies freedom from teacher- stereo-typing. Stereotyping means boys are better than girls in mathematics or girls are better than boys in language.
54 4. PRACTICALITY AND EFFICIENCY Assessments need to take into consideration the teacher's familiarity with the method, the time required, the complexity of administration, the ease of scoring and interpretation, and the cost to be able to determine an assessment's practicality and efficiency.
55 5. ETHICS IN ASSESSMENTThe term "ethics" refers to questions of right and wrong.The teachers need to ask themselves if it is right to assess a specific knowledge or investigate a certain question.
56 5. ETHICS IN ASSESSMENTHere are some situations in which assessment may not be called for:Requiring students to answer checklist of their sexual fantasiesAsking elementary pupils to answer sensitive questions without consent of their parentsTesting the mental abilities of pupils using an instrument whose validity and reliability are unknown
57 ETHICAL ISSUES IN ASSESSMENT 5. ETHICS IN ASSESSMENTETHICAL ISSUES IN ASSESSMENTThe fundamental responsibility of a teacher. Naturally, no teacher would want this to happen to any of his/her student.
58 ETHICAL ISSUES IN ASSESSMENT 5. ETHICS IN ASSESSMENTETHICAL ISSUES IN ASSESSMENTTest results and assessment results are confidential results. Results should be communicated to the students in a way that other students would not be in possession of information pertaining to any specific member of the class.
59 ETHICAL ISSUES IN ASSESSMENT 5. ETHICS IN ASSESSMENTETHICAL ISSUES IN ASSESSMENTDeception. There are instances in which it is necessary to conceal the objective of the assessment from the students in order to ensure fair and impartial results.
60 ETHICAL ISSUES IN ASSESSMENT 5. ETHICS IN ASSESSMENTETHICAL ISSUES IN ASSESSMENTTemptation to assist certain individuals in class during assessment or testing is ever present. It is best if the teacher does not administer the test himself if he believes that such a concern may be considered unethical.
61 SUMMARY: A HIGH QUALITY ASSESSMENT… has clear learning targetsis appropriate in methodis valid, reliable, fair, practical, efficient and ethical.