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INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF AFRICAN WRITERS ISLAMIZATION & ARABIZATION: THE CHALLENGE OF BORDERLAND COUNTRIES (BELT OF BILAD AL SOUDAN) Dr. M. J. Hashim.

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Presentation on theme: "INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF AFRICAN WRITERS ISLAMIZATION & ARABIZATION: THE CHALLENGE OF BORDERLAND COUNTRIES (BELT OF BILAD AL SOUDAN) Dr. M. J. Hashim."— Presentation transcript:

1 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF AFRICAN WRITERS ISLAMIZATION & ARABIZATION: THE CHALLENGE OF BORDERLAND COUNTRIES (BELT OF BILAD AL SOUDAN) Dr. M. J. Hashim In Commemoration of the 50th Anniversar of the Ethiopian Writers Association 2-4 May 2011, AddisAbaba

2 ISLAMIZATION & ARABIZATION: THE CHALLENGE OF BORDERLAND COUNTRIES (BELT OF BILAD AL SOUDAN ) Dr. M. Jalal Hashim

3 Islamization & Arabization neither Islam nor Arabs are meant neither Islam nor Arabs are meant an ideological awareness if tested by both Islam & Pan Arabism may fail an ideological awareness if tested by both Islam & Pan Arabism may fail It depicts situations where black Africans kill black African believing they are Arabs (Hashim, Forthcoming) It depicts situations where black Africans kill black African believing they are Arabs (Hashim, Forthcoming)

4 Pan Africanism (1900): from African Diaspora to Continentalism (1945) African Diaspora and the Motherland African Diaspora and the Motherland The 1st 1900 London Pan African Congress: the Black Races The 1st 1900 London Pan African Congress: the Black Races The 5th (eroneously) 1945 Manchester Pan African Congress: African Nations ; the Role of Nkruma The 5th (eroneously) 1945 Manchester Pan African Congress: African Nations ; the Role of Nkruma (Adi & Sherwood, 2003; Alli, 1999; Esedebe, 1994) (Adi & Sherwood, 2003; Alli, 1999; Esedebe, 1994)

5 Pan Africanism: Back to African Nation & the Emergence of Borderland Belt Sub-Saharan Pan Africanism + Diaspora Sub-Saharan Pan Africanism + Diaspora The African Nation (Prah, 2006a) The African Nation (Prah, 2006a)

6 The Buffer Zone of Identity Arabized Nomads Encroachment in Sudanic Belt (Sudan, Chad, Niger, Mali etc) Arabized Nomads Encroachment in Sudanic Belt (Sudan, Chad, Niger, Mali etc) Identification with Arabs & deploring Africans (Prah, 2006b; 2005) Identification with Arabs & deploring Africans (Prah, 2006b; 2005) The Sudanic Belt Nomadic Pan Arab nationalism: in the making The Sudanic Belt Nomadic Pan Arab nationalism: in the making Darfur Scenario: exterminating Africans (Hashim, 2005) Darfur Scenario: exterminating Africans (Hashim, 2005)

7 Pan African Challenge of Borderland The Split of Identity: Africanism vs. Arabism The Split of Identity: Africanism vs. Arabism Pan Africanism and the Challenge of Nation Building Pan Africanism and the Challenge of Nation Building Transforming Mode of Economical Activity: Pastoralist vs.Sedentary Transforming Mode of Economical Activity: Pastoralist vs.Sedentary

8 If Mission not accomplished? The Desintegration of the State The Desintegration of the State Totalitarian Democracy Totalitarian Democracy State Corruption in the Name of Allah State Corruption in the Name of Allah Demographic Re-engineering of Marginalized Areas out of Control Demographic Re-engineering of Marginalized Areas out of Control PROSPECTS OF Full-fledged Civil Wars? PROSPECTS OF Full-fledged Civil Wars? Collapse of State? More Guerrella Organizations Collapse of State? More Guerrella Organizations

9 The Case of the Sudan

10 The Geopolitical Significance of the Sudan A Model for the belt of Bilad al-Sudan, i.e. Countries bordering Arabia from one side and Africa from the other A Model for the belt of Bilad al-Sudan, i.e. Countries bordering Arabia from one side and Africa from the other What takes place here is likely to occur elsewhere What takes place here is likely to occur elsewhere

11 Regional Pan Africanism: drawing Strength from Within: the Case of the Horn of Africa Raising and enhancing Pan African Awareness Raising and enhancing Pan African Awareness Integrative Unity Integrative Unity Democratization & Human Rights Democratization & Human Rights Developing economical Interdependencies Developing economical Interdependencies Regional Pan Africanism: drawing strength from within: the Case of Horn of Africa Raising Pan African Awareness Ethnicity Management & Conflicts Resolution Integrative Unity of Development & Education Democratization & Human Rights Developmental economical Interdependencies

12 Over-bridging Regional disunity Under regional unity: * Ethiopia & Eritrea can reunite * North & South Sudan can reunite * Somalia can be reunite

13 Regional Integration Politically: Nile Basin Initiative Sudan detaching from Egypt, integrating with Ethiopia Regional Conflict Resolution Mechanism

14 Labour, Commerce & Environment Integral Commerce: easy cross border commodities Environment & Food Security: Famine, Drought, & integral food production Free Labour move

15 Pan African Unity: widening regional unity A step toward Sub-Saharan African Unity

16 Toward bigger regional Unity

17 Sub-Saharan Pan African Unity

18 Conclusion Africa is United! But where is the place of African Diaspora? The answer: Afro-Pacific-Caribbean Integration Institutionalized Come-Back Welcome Multi Pan African Citizenship

19 BIBLIOGRAPHY Alli, W.O Africa & the African Diaspora: Aspects of an Experience. Alli, W.O Africa & the African Diaspora: Aspects of an Experience. Esedebe, P. Olisanwuche Pan-Africanism: the Idea and the Movement: Washington: Howard University Press. Esedebe, P. Olisanwuche Pan-Africanism: the Idea and the Movement: Washington: Howard University Press. Hakim Adi, Marika Sherwood Pan-African History: Political Figures from Africa & the Diaspora since New York: Routledge. Hakim Adi, Marika Sherwood Pan-African History: Political Figures from Africa & the Diaspora since New York: Routledge.

20 Hashim, M.J Islamization and Arabization of Africans as a Means to Political Power in the Sudan: Contradictions of Discrimination based on the Blackness of Skin and Stigma of Slavery and their Contribution to the Civil Wars. In: Bankie, F.B. & Mchombu, K. Pan- Africanism: African Nationalism: strengthening the Unity of Africa and its Diaspora. Asmara: the Red Sea Press, Inc Hashim, M.J Islamization and Arabization of Africans as a Means to Political Power in the Sudan: Contradictions of Discrimination based on the Blackness of Skin and Stigma of Slavery and their Contribution to the Civil Wars. In: Bankie, F.B. & Mchombu, K. Pan- Africanism: African Nationalism: strengthening the Unity of Africa and its Diaspora. Asmara: the Red Sea Press, Inc Hashim, M.J The dams of Northern Sudan and the policy of demographic engineering. In: International Journal of African Renaissance Studies- Multi-, Inter- and Transdisciplinarity, Volume 5 Issue 1, Online:http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=a ll~content=a ~frm=titlelink?words=hashim&ha sh= Hashim, M.J The dams of Northern Sudan and the policy of demographic engineering. In: International Journal of African Renaissance Studies- Multi-, Inter- and Transdisciplinarity, Volume 5 Issue 1, Online:http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=a ll~content=a ~frm=titlelink?words=hashim&ha sh= http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=a ll~content=a ~frm=titlelink?words=hashim&ha sh= http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=a ll~content=a ~frm=titlelink?words=hashim&ha sh=

21 Hashim, M.J. Forthcoming. To be or not to be: Sudan at Crossroads. Red Sea Publishing House. Hashim, M.J. Forthcoming. To be or not to be: Sudan at Crossroads. Red Sea Publishing House. Prah, Kwesi K. 2006a. The African Nation: The State of the Nation. Cape Town: the Centre for Advanced Studies of African Societies (CASAS). Prah, Kwesi K. 2006a. The African Nation: The State of the Nation. Cape Town: the Centre for Advanced Studies of African Societies (CASAS). Prah, Kwesi K (ed). 2006b. Racism in the Global African Experience. Cape Town: the Centre for Advanced Studies of African Societies (CASAS). Prah, Kwesi K (ed). 2006b. Racism in the Global African Experience. Cape Town: the Centre for Advanced Studies of African Societies (CASAS). Prah, Kwesi K (ed). 2006b. Reflections on the Arab-led Slavery of Africans. Cape Town: the Centre for Advanced Studies of African Societies (CASAS). Prah, Kwesi K (ed). 2006b. Reflections on the Arab-led Slavery of Africans. Cape Town: the Centre for Advanced Studies of African Societies (CASAS).


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