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Presentation on theme: "INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF AFRICAN WRITERS"— Presentation transcript:

In Commemoration of the 50th Anniversar of the Ethiopian Writers Association 2-4 May 2011, AddisAbaba ISLAMIZATION & ARABIZATION: THE CHALLENGE OF BORDERLAND COUNTRIES (BELT OF BILAD AL SOUDAN) Dr. M. J. Hashim

Dr. M. Jalal Hashim

3 Islamization & Arabization
neither Islam nor Arabs are meant an ideological awareness if tested by both Islam & Pan Arabism may fail It depicts situations where black Africans kill black African believing they are Arabs (Hashim, Forthcoming)

4 Pan Africanism (1900): from African Diaspora to Continentalism (1945)
African Diaspora and the Motherland The 1st 1900 London Pan African Congress: the Black Races The 5th (eroneously) 1945 Manchester Pan African Congress: African Nations ; the Role of Nkruma (Adi & Sherwood, 2003; Alli, 1999; Esedebe, 1994)

5 Pan Africanism: Back to African Nation & the Emergence of Borderland Belt
Sub-Saharan Pan Africanism + Diaspora The African Nation (Prah, 2006a)

6 The Buffer Zone of Identity
Arabized Nomads Encroachment in Sudanic Belt (Sudan, Chad, Niger, Mali etc) Identification with Arabs & deploring Africans (Prah, 2006b; 2005) The Sudanic Belt Nomadic Pan Arab nationalism: in the making Darfur Scenario: exterminating Africans (Hashim, 2005)

7 Pan African Challenge of Borderland
The Split of Identity: Africanism vs. Arabism Pan Africanism and the Challenge of Nation Building Transforming Mode of Economical Activity: Pastoralist vs.Sedentary

8 If Mission not accomplished?
The Desintegration of the State Totalitarian Democracy State Corruption in the Name of Allah Demographic Re-engineering of Marginalized Areas out of Control PROSPECTS OF Full-fledged Civil Wars? Collapse of State? More Guerrella Organizations

9 The Case of the Sudan

10 The Geopolitical Significance of the Sudan
A Model for the belt of Bilad al-Sudan, i.e. Countries bordering Arabia from one side and Africa from the other What takes place here is likely to occur elsewhere

11 Regional Pan Africanism: drawing Strength from Within: the Case of the Horn of Africa
Regional Pan Africanism: drawing strength from within: the Case of Horn of Africa Raising Pan African Awareness Ethnicity Management & Conflicts Resolution Integrative Unity of Development & Education Democratization & Human Rights Developmental economical Interdependencies Raising and enhancing Pan African Awareness Integrative Unity Democratization & Human Rights Developing economical Interdependencies

12 Over-bridging Regional disunity
Under regional unity: * Ethiopia & Eritrea can reunite * North & South Sudan can reunite * Somalia can be reunite

13 Regional Integration Politically: Nile Basin Initiative
Sudan detaching from Egypt, integrating with Ethiopia Regional Conflict Resolution Mechanism

14 Labour, Commerce & Environment
Integral Commerce: easy cross border commodities Environment & Food Security: Famine, Drought, & integral food production Free Labour move

15 Pan African Unity: widening regional unity
A step toward Sub-Saharan African Unity

16 Toward bigger regional Unity

17 Sub-Saharan Pan African Unity

18 Conclusion Africa is United!
But where is the place of African Diaspora? The answer: Afro-Pacific-Caribbean Integration Institutionalized Come-Back Welcome Multi Pan African Citizenship

19 BIBLIOGRAPHY Alli, W.O Africa & the African Diaspora: Aspects of an Experience. Esedebe, P. Olisanwuche Pan-Africanism: the Idea and the Movement: Washington: Howard University Press. Hakim Adi, Marika Sherwood Pan-African History: Political Figures from Africa & the Diaspora since New York: Routledge.

20 Hashim, M.J Islamization and Arabization of Africans as a Means to Political Power in the Sudan: Contradictions of Discrimination based on the Blackness of Skin and Stigma of Slavery and their Contribution to the Civil Wars. In: Bankie, F.B. & Mchombu, K. Pan-Africanism: African Nationalism: strengthening the Unity of Africa and its Diaspora. Asmara: the Red Sea Press, Inc Hashim, M.J The dams of Northern Sudan and the policy of demographic engineering. In: International Journal of African Renaissance Studies- Multi-, Inter- and Transdisciplinarity, Volume 5 Issue 1, Online:

21 Hashim, M. J. Forthcoming. To be or not to be: Sudan at Crossroads
Hashim, M.J. Forthcoming. To be or not to be: Sudan at Crossroads. Red Sea Publishing House. Prah, Kwesi K. 2006a. The African Nation: The State of the Nation. Cape Town: the Centre for Advanced Studies of African Societies (CASAS). Prah, Kwesi K (ed). 2006b. Racism in the Global African Experience. Cape Town: the Centre for Advanced Studies of African Societies (CASAS). Prah, Kwesi K (ed). 2006b. Reflections on the Arab-led Slavery of Africans. Cape Town: the Centre for Advanced Studies of African Societies (CASAS).


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