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Supporting Essential Practices for Ongoing Development of

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1 Supporting Essential Practices for Ongoing Development of
Academic Oral Language & Literacy Jeff Zwiers April 8, 2015 LAUSD Secondary Principals Handouts:

2 Understanding Language
Guiding Question How can I support teachers to engage students in speaking and conversation activities in ways that develop the language, thinking, and content of the most important and most needed standards? ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language ALDNetwork.org

3 New Emphases in New Standards
Science (NGSS) Ask questions & define problems Construct explanations & design solutions Engage in argument from evidence Evaluate and communicate information Math (CCSS) Make sense of problems Reason abstractly Construct viable arguments Critique the reasoning of others Understand, analyze, compare, apply Language (CCSS) Participate in conversations, building on others’ ideas and expressing own ideas Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning Use evidence to support claims ELD Exchange ideas with others through oral discussions Support opinions & negotiate with others Clearly convey ideas ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language

4 A Major Shift in New Standards
Science (NGSS) Ask questions & define problems Construct explanations & design solutions Engage in argument from evidence Evaluate, and communicate information Math (CCSS) Make sense of problems Reason abstractly Construct viable arguments Critique the reasoning of others Understand, analyze, compare, apply Language (CCSS) Participate in conversations, building on others’ ideas and expressing own ideas Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning Use evidence to support claims ELD Exchange ideas with others through oral discussions Support opinions & negotiate with others Clearly convey ideas Building Strong, Clear, Whole Ideas Choosing & Recalling Short Answers & “Pieces” ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language

5 Oral Output & Conversations
Oral Output is one-way, one-time, clear & strong communication of ideas & thinking. (>1 linked sentences) Conversations are back-and-forth interactions in which participants build on one another’s ideas to build up ideas that weren’t in their minds before talking. H Think-pair-shares, Answering teacher questions, Jigsaws, Gallery walks, Oral presentations Idea ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language

6 Developing Oral Output
with TRANSITION IMPROV Activities

7 Transition Improv Activity: Pro-Con
Topics: Camping, Shopping, Traveling, TV, Uniforms, Computers, Video Games, Large schools, Cars, Conferences, Testing, Internet, Cell phones Transitions: However, On the other hand, Then again, but PC Frames: One advantage is … For example, … Another positive of … is… because… A negative aspect of ___ is … In spite of the positives of _____, A & B, Lean? ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language

8 Understanding Language
Transition Improv (Similar-Different) Topic: Plant cells & animal cells Transitions: However, On the other hand, Then again, but Animal cells Plant Cells One turn with; next turn without Cytoplasm Ribosomes Mitochondria Building blocks No cell wall Round shape centrioles Have cell wall Rectangular shape Have chloroplasts SD Frames: … are similar to ____ in that they both _____ Animal cells differ from plant cells in that _____ Unlike animal cells, plant cells have ____, which are… Plant & animal cells both have ____, which serve to… ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language

9 Understanding Language
OUTPUT ACTIVITY: Transition Improv: (Two Views) Views: Pioneers Native Americans Transitions: However, On the other hand, Then again, but Frames: The ___ thought that … Many ___ believed that… A different perspective held by ___ was that… In the eyes of ___... ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language

10 “STRONGER Y CLEARER EACH TIME” Activities
Developing Oral Output with “STRONGER Y CLEARER EACH TIME” Activities

11 Fortifying Oral Output with “Stronger & Clearer Each Turn” Activities?
Prompt for an original response (e.g., explanation, long answer, opinion, idea, etc.). Each student says idea to successive partners and borrow and use the language, ideas, and evidence of others each time they talk. Responses become stronger (often longer) with better supporting evidence and examples. Responses become clearer with more precise terms and linked, organized, complete sentences. Scaffolds, if used, are reduced during activity.

12 Student Model of “Stronger & Clearer Each Time”
I think video games are bad cuz they show violence. I am way on the Ban side. I’m on the not ban side. In my opinion, video games are kinda good. I know some games you shoot people, but some teach you. Switch partners! 1st Partner Silvia Me BAN | | | | NOT BAN Video Games Banned or Not?

13 Student Model of “Stronger & Clearer Each Time”
I’m on the not ban side. In my opinion, video games are kinda good. I know some games you shoot people, but some teach you. I think video games are bad cuz they show violence. I am way on the Ban side. Switch partners! I am on the far right side. Even though some video games are violent, a lot are educational. We have a right to choose what we play, too. I’m on the ban side, but not all the way. In my opinion, games should be banned because war video games show kids how shoot others. But some teach you about life. 2nd Partner Silvia Me BAN | | | | NOT BAN Video Games Banned or Not?

14 Student Model of “Stronger & Clearer Each Time”
I’m on the not ban side. In my opinion, video games are kinda good. I know some games you shoot people, but some teach you. I think video games are bad cuz they show violence. I am on the far right side. Even though some video games are violent, a lot are educational. We have a a right choose what we play, too. I’m on the ban side, but not all the way. In my opinion, games should be banned because war video games show kids how shoot others. But some teach you about life. I am just left of the middle. Even though some video games are good, violent ones should be banned. Kids’ minds fill up with violence. Some games can teach to solve problems and learn, which made me move over toward NOT BAN. 3rd Partner Silvia Me BAN | | | | NOT BAN Video Games Banned or Not?

15 Stronger and Clearer Activity: Opinion Continuum
POSITIVE Social Media NEGATIVE Notes: Me X Theo Lea GREED Character Motivation LOVE Notes: Me X Theo YES WWI Justified? NO Notes: Me X Carla You can use frames such as - In my opinion, ____ because _____. - Despite the reason/advantages of … - Given the points that I have heard so far, such as … - After talking with (name), I now lean more to the side of ____ because … . J.Zwiers

16 Understanding Language
“Stronger & Clearer Each Turn” Grid Name What do you think is the most important theme of this short story? Me (just two or three key words, if any) 1. 2. 3. How did geography influence Native American culture in this region? Lisa couldn’t eat the last ⅜ of her pizza, and her brother had ⅓ of his pizza still on his plate. How much pizza in total was left? Explain and justify. How does the circulatory system work? Listeners can ask clarifying questions: First, we need to decide… In order to figure out the… Because we need to…, we… ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language ALDNetwork.org

17 “Stronger & Clearer Each Time” Template
ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language

18 Analyzing Oral Language Evidence
Oral Output Analysis Tool (OOAT) STRONG Used solid evidence or examples from the text Explained how the evidence supported the main idea Accurate understanding & recall To strengthen his or her idea, the student could … CLEAR A clear topic sentence, followed by Supporting or clarifying sentences Used transitions to link sentences More precise vocabulary Details and explanation expected by listeners To clarify his or her idea, the student could … Listeners can ask clarifying questions: ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language ALDNetwork.org

19 Classroom Conversations: More than a Shift
“Why do I have to talk with a partner? I already know the answer!” “Just wait. She’ll tell us the answer at the end.” Student perspective ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language

20 The Power of Conversation
“Conversations can leave us pondering and processing ideas which, in turn, contribute to the inner dialogues that we hold in our heads throughout each day (Vygotsky, 1986).” These inner dialogues continually shape our thoughts and language. “One of the opportunities school can offer pupils is the chance to involve other people in their thoughts—to use conversations to develop their own thoughts.” o (Mercer,1995) ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language

21 Constructive Conversation Skills, Icons, & Motions
Strategy For Fostering Academic Conversations Constructive Conversation Skills, Icons, & Motions

22 Constructive Conversation Skills for Type B
Goal: Students collaboratively (but w/o teacher) build an idea (e.g., claim, answer, solution, interpretation), using the following skills: Create Idea Build Idea Clarify Idea Support Idea Hand motions ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language

23 Constructive Conversation Skills for Type BC
Goal: Students collaboratively (but w/o teacher) build claims & ideas and then choose one of them, using the following skills: Create Ideas Evaluate & Compare (Argue) Build Ideas & Choose Best Clarify Ideas Support Ideas Hand motions ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language

24 Understanding Language
Type and Feedback Laura: I don’t think air has weight. Eli: I disagree because I think it does. Remember the balloon. Laura: I respectfully disagree with you. Eli: Then we just agree to disagree, right? Lisa: I think the dog was his best friend in the story. Edgar: I would like to add to your idea. My dog ran away last year and we found him in the park. Lisa: Which park? Edgar: The one by the train station. Lisa: I took a train to San Jose last week. ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language

25 Analyzing Oral Language Evidence
Conversation Analysis Tool (CAT) Listeners can ask clarifying questions: ALDNetwork.org ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language

26 Constructive Conversations in 9th ELA
Context Sheltered 9th grade English class (taught by Patrick Hurley) Intermediate and early advanced speakers. Have read To Kill a Mockingbird and Of Mice and Men Focal conversation skill: supporting your ideas with examples from a text. Prompts on the board This Clip Discuss the main theme: “what do you think an important theme in this book is?” “An important theme of this book is real courage'” They prompt each other: “What does courage mean?” “Can you elaborate on that?” “Can you give an example from another book? “How does this apply to our life?” ALDNetwork.org

27 Claim vs. Opposite or Different Claim
Scaffold for Type BC Constructive Conversations: Argument Balance Scale Claim vs Opposite or Different Claim Which claim’s reasons, evidence, and explanations weigh the most? Activity for supporting ideas: argument scale Claim/Position Claim/Position Should U.S. have entered the war? Main theme of the story? All petroleum is biogenic Video games banned or not Magnets attract all metals Are humans good or evil? Yes Courage Good Perseverence No Evil ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language

28 Understanding Language
“Constructive Conversations” Activity for All 4 Skills: Argument Balance Scale Activity for supporting ideas: argument scale Reason/Evidnc/Exp Claim/Position Should smoking be illegal? Yes No Claim/Position ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language

29 Understanding Language
“Constructive Conversations” Activity for All 4 Skills: Argument Balance Scale Activity for supporting ideas: argument scale Reason/Evidnc/Exp Reason/Evidnc/Exp Should smoking be illegal? Claim/Position Yes No ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language

30 Understanding Language
“Constructive Conversations” Activity for All 4 Skills: Argument Scale Activity for supporting ideas: argument scale Evaluate & compare the evidence on both sides (use criteria) Reason/Evidnc/Exp Reason/Evidnc/Exp Should smoking be illegal? Claim/Position Yes No ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language

31 Understanding Language
“Constructive Conversations” Activity for All 4 Skills: Argument Scale Activity for supporting ideas: argument scale Choose a side and argue why it “weighs more” Should smoking be illegal? Claim/Position Yes No Reason/Evidnc/Exp 3-D Version 2D-Scale ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language

32 Constructive Conversations in 8th ELA
Context 8th grade English class Early Intermediate to Early Advanced speakers. Have read articles on smoking Focal conversation skill: supporting your ideas with examples and evaluating them. Positives of interaction? What did teacher do? What else needs to be done (converse about this) Validation of your ideas; academic identity; face to face validation; get engaged in the idea (intrinsic motvation) Creating ideas, and creating language to describe their ideas. This Clip Each student chose a side to argue on whether or not to ban smoking. They use balance scale visual and paper clips to show “weight” of evidence They prompt each other to support and evaluate with “Why?” questions ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language

33 What makes a conversation prompt effective?
Purpose for talking based on lesson objectives Require thinking and doing something with ideas: create, clarify, argue, decide, rank, solve, evaluate, combine, compare, choose, fortify, & transform Decide which theme in the story is most relevant for 7th graders today. Rank the most significant effects of the Industrial Revolution Come to an agreement on how you would measure the speed of sound. Discuss how to solve this problem more than one way and argue for one to use in similar problems. ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language

34 Understanding Language
Recap Use structured activities to encourage oral language (e.g., Transition Improvs) Use activities that provide oral output practice face-2-face (e.g., Stronger & Clearer Each Time) Foster Conversation Skills (Create, Clarify, Fortify, Evaluate-Compare) for 2 Types of Conversations: B & BC ALDNetwork.org Understanding Language ALDNetwork.org

35 Reflecting on the Presentation
How might you develop and apply the ideas (on developing oral output and conversation skills) in your setting? What are concrete steps that you can take in the next two months? What will result if you (and your teachers) don’t apply these ideas? What will result if you do use these ideas?

36 CONTACT INFORMATION Website: ALDNetwork.org Handouts: MOOCs: References Mercer, N. (2000). The Guided Construction of Knowledge: Talk amongst teachers and learners. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. Zwiers, O’Hara, & Pritchard (2014) Common Core Standards in diverse classrooms: Essential practices for developing academic language & disciplinary literacy. Stenhouse.


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