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2 75.Define “Climate”. Climate refers to long-term weather trends and the range of variations that can be detected over decades in a specific region.

3 76.Do weather trends vary or stay the same from year to year? can vary widely Give an example to justify your answer. Give an example to justify your answer. annual snowfall annual snowfall

4 77. State the famous statement which contrasts climate and weather.

5 78. How are forecasters able to predict weather trends over time? time based on long-term climate records

6 79. Low-pressure belts at the equator and at 50° to 60° north and south latitudes generate abundant precipitation. At latitudes around 30° north and south, dry descending air from high pressure belts produces arid zones that include Earth's major deserts.

7 80. Between middle latitudes and the polar regions, a sharp pressure gradient creates jet stream winds flowing from west to east at the boundary area.

8 81.What do the jet streams transport? Heat 82.What happens when the mid-latitude jet stream dips down from Canada into the United States during the winter? it carries arctic air and winter storms into the it carries arctic air and winter storms into the southeastern states southeastern states


10 83.Hurricanes form over tropical waters (between 8° and 20° latitude) in areas with what (3) conditions? high humidity, light winds, and warm sea surface temperatures

11 84. Number these steps 1 – 6 in the correct order for the formation of a hurricane. ___4___ air pressure near the top of the storm starts to rise in response to latent heat warming ___1___ appearance of a tropical disturbance (cluster of thunderstorms) ___3__ the Coriolis force leads the converging winds into a counterclockwise circulation around the storm's lowest-pressure area ___6___ the upper-level area of high pressure acts like a chimney to vent the tropical system and keeps the air converging at the surface from piling up around the center ___2___ falling pressure pulls in more air at the surface, which makes more warm air rise and release latent heat, which further reduces surface pressure. ___2___ falling pressure pulls in more air at the surface, which makes more warm air rise and release latent heat, which further reduces surface pressure. ___5___ a high-pressure zone makes air diverge (flow outward) around the top of the center of the system and then it drops to the ground, forming powerful winds

12 85.What (3) circumstances could weaken or diminish a hurricane? If air were to pile up at the center, surface pressure would rise inside the storm and ultimately weaken or destroy it. At the surface hurricanes can diminish quickly if they move over cooler water or land and lose their supplies of warm, moist tropical air, or if they move into an area where the large- scale flow aloft is not favorable for continued development or maintenance of the circulation.

13 86. What causes most of the stormy weather in the United States, especially during the winter season? mid-latitude cyclones 87. What conditions allow mid-latitude cyclones to occur? They occur when warm tropical and cold polar air masses meet at the polar front.

14 88. What causes a cyclonic system to start to move into a spiral? on&groupid=44&topicid=30911&Itemid=179 when warm air is lifted over the colder air

15 / … just thought this was cool!

16 89.Compare the location of the highest wind velocities between a cyclone and a hurricane. In cyclones, their strongest wind velocities are at high altitudes. In hurricanes, their highest velocities are at the surface where pressure differences are greatest.

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