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LABEC, Florence Laboratory of Nuclear Techniques for Environment and Cultural Heritage F. Lucarelli.

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Presentation on theme: "LABEC, Florence Laboratory of Nuclear Techniques for Environment and Cultural Heritage F. Lucarelli."— Presentation transcript:

1 LABEC, Florence Laboratory of Nuclear Techniques for Environment and Cultural Heritage F. Lucarelli

2 From mid 1980s its research goals were changed to applications, mainly Ion Beam Analysis, IBA (mostly Particle-Induced X ray Emission, PIXE) In Florence.... Long-time tradition with PIXE (and IBA in general) applied to Cultural Heritage This activity started in the middle of the Eighties with an old Van de Graaff single-ended accelerator... This activity started in the middle of the Eighties with an old Van de Graaff single-ended accelerator... Until mid 1980s a local activity of nuclear physics with the 3 MV van de Graaff accelerator

3 3 Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) Material composition analysis through beam particle bombardment typically proton or alpha beams at some MeV energy particle accelerator radiation detection and spectral analysis particle beam emission of radiation of characteristic energies (X-rays, -rays, particles…)


5 move of the Physics Department to the new campus in Sesto Fiorentino INFN and University create a new lab new 3 MV Tandetron, designed from the beginning to perform both IBA and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) The new laboratory, LABEC, is operational in May

6 Tandetron, 3 MV max. terminal voltage 3 independent ion sources (single-cahode Cs sputter, 59-cathode Cs sputter, Duoplasmatron) 6 beamlines for Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) 1 beamline for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) Copyright foto Luca Casonato, 2009

7 Accelerator hall

8 The Tandetron facility at LABEC IBA dual source 3 MV Tandetron chopped beam line multi-angle scattering chamber multipurpose IBA vacuum chamber external beam (Cultural Heritage) high-energy AMS spectrometer multi-sample AMS source external micro-beam external beam (Environment)

9 technological developments (electronics and process automation, data acquisition systems, detection setups, further beamlines) methodological developments (test of new ideas for application procedures) measurements in the framework of both: interdisciplinary research projects in collaboration with other Institutions (CNR, Cultural Heritage safeguard Institutions, Environmental Protection Agencies) and University Departments other than Physics Dpts internal collaborations supporting other nuclear physics groups (detector tests, radiation damage measurements, etc.) Activities at LABEC

10 25-30% AMS 30% IBA aerosol 30-35% IBA for Cultural Heritage and other applications 10% neither AMS nor IBA Beam time

11 at LABEC AMS 14 C 14 C, in turn, mainly for archaeological dating AMS at LABEC The low-energy and high-energy AMS lines are equipped with the necessary hardware to implement the measurement of 14 C, 10 Be, 26 Al and 129 I. Standard precision < 0.5% (< 0.3% when required) Overall background: ~ y equivalent

12 Summary of present state of radiocarbon AMS measurements at LABEC-INFN Florence Around 400 samples per year Standard precision < 0.5% (< 0.3% when required) Overall background: ~ y equivalent

13 AMS 14 C dating at LABEC about 300 samples analysed per year (home-prepared) prepared outside Distribution of analysed materials

14 Relics of St. Francis (tunics and other) kept in the church of St.Francis in Cortona and in the Basilica of Santa Croce (Florence) Archaeological diggings in downtown Florence (Palazzo Vecchio and surroundings) Etruscan site diggings in Southern Tuscany River sediments – the Abak Creek layers in Ethiopia

15 5 settembre 2007 Scientific American online 6 settembre 2007

16 The Artemidors papyrus The Rosano Crucifix The icon in the Basilica of Santa Maria in Aracoeli, Rome

17 Atmospheric aerosols Impact on the environment Impact on human health Impact on cultural heritage Solid or liquid particles with a diameter from to 10 2 μm natural or anthropogenic sources primary or secondary origin

18 What do we need to study aerosols Many good data concerning: PM concentration and composition size distribution optical properties time and space evolution OUTPUT Quantification and identification of PM emissions sources through receptor models Contribution to climate models to assess the role of atmospheric aerosols in radiative forcing Contribution to pollution abatement policies to improve air qualitity

19 Higher-Z elements X ray detector (Si(Li)) Light elements X ray detector (SDD) Faraday cup Gamma ray det. HPGe He PIXE-PIGE external set-up at LABEC for aerosol composition measurements

20 LABEC aerosol group research projects Local impact: Study of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in Tuscany (PATOS, PATOS 2) and in major Italian towns, Barcelona, Sevilla, Elche, Alicante, London, Japan Global impact: EPICA - European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica TALDICE - TALos Dome Ice CorE ANDRILL - Antarctic Geological Drilling AMMA - African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis MAIL - Marine Aerosol in the Island of Lampedusa DIRIGIBILE ITALIA (multidisciplinary study of climate change in Arctic region) Environmental monitoring at cultural heritage sites Indoor pollution/Personal exposure: HEARTS - Health Effects And Risks of Transport Systems

21 Average source apportionment

22 Las Hogueras (Alicante)


24 Remote areas Antarctic dust Desert aerosol dust particles deposited over the Antarctic ice sheet and archived in ice core samples (spanning the last 220 kyr), to investigate global climate changes collected during the AMMA project (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses)

25 S. Szidat, Science 323 (2009), C fraction with respect to modern carbon: ~ 0 in the aerosols produced by fossil fuels ~ 1 in the aerosol of biogenic origin or from biomass burning Marker of pollution from fossil fuels burning AMS 14 C measurements in aerosols

26 LABEC – Laboratorio di Tecniche Nucleari per lAmbiente e i Beni Culturali Ion Beam Analysis techniques for Cultural Heritage

27 Using external beam set-ups we can investigate in a totally non-destructive way the complete quantitative composition of any kind of artwork

28 ...glazed terracottas, External PIXE analysis of the Ritratto di fanciullo by Luca Della Robbia – before restoration at the Opificio delle Pietre Dure in Florence Analysis of ancient glass, External PIXE-PIGE analysis of the glass tesserae from Villa Adriana

29 External-beam PIXE analysis of the frontispiece of Pl.16,22 (XV century, Biblioteca Laurenziana in Florence)...ancient illuminated manuscripts,...historical documents, Inks in Galileos manuscripts (Florence National Library) analysed by external PIXE

30 …ancient embroideries, Micro-PIXE and –PIGE analysis of gold threads of a Renaissance embroidery based on a cartoon by Raffaellino del Garbo …early photographs, PIXE-PIGE analysis of a print on metal plate of the XIX century

31 ...drawings, PIXE-PIGE analysis of a drawing on prepared paper, by Leonardo or his school PIXE-PIGE analysis of a drawing on prepared paper, school of Verona, XVI cent.

32 ...paintings on wood or canvas Micro-PIXE and -PIGE analysis of the Ritratto Trivulzio by Antonello da Messina Differential PIXE and PIGE analysis of the Madonna dei Fusi by Leonardo

33 Giorgio Vasari Tavoletta with S.Lucia, from Pala Albergotti, Arezzo Andrea Mantegna Madonna col Bambino, oil on canvas, Accademia Carrara di Bergamo

34 …manufacts in semi-precious stones, Disc with star from the Collezione Medicea di Pietre Ornamentali of the Natural History Museum in Florence ( mineralogy and lithology division)

35 Two dedicated external beamlines beam size defined by collimation (Ø 0.2 ÷ 1 mm) strong focusing system, quadrupole doublet (Ø 8÷10 m)

36 External microbeam line magnetic scan of areas within the window aperture list-mode (E,x,y) DAQ includes detection systems for PIXE, PIGE, backward and forward particle scattering, < 10 m beam size on target ion induced luminescence (IBIL) beam

37 Au L α Pb L α Sn K Fe Elemental mapping The eye of the Virgin The veil Au L α Al Si Pb L α 2 mm

38 External microbeam line full control of beam currents from a few nA down to ultra low (hundreds of particles/sec) higher beam intensities elemental PIXE –PIGE maps also for trace elements (of great interest e.g. for geologists) ultra-low currents possibility of scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) tests of detectors response as a function of position (through IBICC, ion beam induced charge collection)

39 Ion lithography (with protons or even heavier ions) through beam-induced alteration of material properties (optical, electrical, etc.) on selected zones drawn by the microbeam scan (material properties are selectively altered in depth thanks to the Bragg peak) Another achievement, exploiting IBMM (Ion Beam Modification of Materials)

40 Electrostatic deflector beamline (pulsed beam facility)

41 Beam bunches with different particle multiplicity can be delivered directly to a detector for response tests to particles 3 MeV protons 5 MeV protons

42 Not only accelerator-based techniques at LABEC Design, construction and applications of an innovative transportable XRF system with superior performance, in particular for low-Z elements detection

43 The transportable XRF spectrometer 2 X ray tubes (30 kV max, 1 mA max) with two different anodes (typically Mo e Ti; W if needed) SDD detector (active area 10 mm 2, 450 μm thickness, FWHM keV) helium flow in front of both tubes and detector telecamera 2 laser beams for accurate positioning interchangeable collimators; typical beam diameter 0.5 mm Measurement head Controller independent PS for the two tubes data acquisition, He flow, X-Y-Z displacement and video camera are remotely controlled (via Ethernet) by the same computer

44 Na Al Si S (+Mo) K Ca Fe ultramarine blue layer Ultramarine blue layer on chalk XRF spectrum with our spectrometre

45 Head of a Prophet by Lorenzo Ghiberti (part of the Paradise Gate of the Florence Baptistery) Gilded bronze

46 Affresco della Resurrezione Piero della Francesca Sansepolcro, Museo Civico


48 Crocefisso, Maestro di Figline Santa Croce

49 Globi del Coronelli Museo Galileo

50 Santa Croce, Cappella Bardi – ciclo di affreschi di Giotto

51 Madonna del Granduca Raffaello Galleria Palatina

52 Thank you for your attention!

53 LABEC – chi ci lavora Luca Cararresi Massimo Chiari Lorenzo Giuntini (tec) Franco Lucarelli Pier Andrea Mandò Marco Manetti (tec.) Silvia Nava Francesco Taccetti (tec.) yellow INFN white UniFi Silvia Calusi (post doc) Giulia Calzolai (post doc) Mariaelena Fedi (ricerc. tempo det.) Lucia Caforio (phd st.)

54 S.Francesco Church at Cortona It was build by Padre Elia a few years after the death of St- Francesco (1226). Three important relics are kept there : The frok; according to tradition, the one used to cover the Saints body at the moment of his death. A pillow, on which tradition tells St. Francis was leaning his head while passing away un evangeliario


56 Identification of fugitive emissions from industries Traffic emissions No chemical analysis is possible! 1 Hour Montelupo Fiorentino: artistic glass industry Continuous streaker sampler

57 Composizione media del mineral dust durante le ultime ere glaciali Confronto con composizione sedimenti nelle possibili zone sorgenti per studiare i fenomeni di trasporto Ice-dust and PSA-sediments composition

58 External STIM set-up

59 STIM of a thin copper grid map of higher-energy transmitted protons map of lower-energy transmitted protons

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