 # Dr. Marco A. Arocha Aug, 2014 1.  “Roots” problems occur when some function f can be written in terms of one or more dependent variables x, where the.

## Presentation on theme: "Dr. Marco A. Arocha Aug, 2014 1.  “Roots” problems occur when some function f can be written in terms of one or more dependent variables x, where the."— Presentation transcript:

Dr. Marco A. Arocha Aug, 2014 1

 “Roots” problems occur when some function f can be written in terms of one or more dependent variables x, where the solutions to f(x)=0 yields the solution to the problem.  Examples:  These problems often occur when a design problem presents an implicit equation (as oppose to an explicit equation) for a required parameter. 2

 Finding the roots of these equations is equivalent to finding the values of x for which f(x) and g(x) are “zero”  For this reason the procedure of solving equations (3) and (4) is frequently referred to as finding the “zeros” of the equations. 3

 Methods that exploit the fact that a function typically changes sign in the vicinity of a root are called bracketing methods.  Two initial guesses for the root are required.  Guesses must “bracket” or be on either side of the root.  The particular methods employ different strategies to systematically reduce the width of the bracket and, hence, home in on the correct answer. 4

 A simple method for obtaining the estimate of the root of the equation f(x)=0 is to make a plot of the function as f(x) vs x and observe where it crosses the x-axis.  Graphing the function can also indicate where roots may be and where some root-finding methods may fail: a) Same sign, no roots b) Different sign, one root c) Same sign, two roots d) Different sign, three roots 5 who is doing this one?

Some difficult cases:  Multiple roots that occurs when the function is tangential to the x axis. For this case, although the end points are of opposite signs, there are an even number of axis intersections for the interval.  Discontinuous function where end points of opposite sign bracket an even number of roots.  Special strategies are required for determining the roots for these cases. 6

 Graphical techniques alone are of limited practical value because they are not precise.  However, graphical methods can be utilized to obtain rough estimates of roots.  These estimates can be employed as starting guesses for numerical methods.  Graphical interpretations are important tools for understanding the properties of the functions and anticipating the pitfalls of the numerical methods. 7

 The bisection method is a search method in which the interval is progresively divided in half.  If a function changes sign over an interval, the function value at the midpoint is evaluated.  The location of the root is then determined as lying within the subinterval where the sign change occurs.  The absolute error is reduced by a factor of 2 for each iteration. 8

9

10

11

INPUT xl, xu, es, imax xr = (xl + xu) / 2 iter = 0 DO xrold = xr xr = (xl + xu) / 2 iter = iter + 1 IF xr ≠ 0 THEN% to avoid division by zero ea = ABS((xr - xrold) / xr) * 100 END IF test = f(xl) * f(xr) IF test < 0 THEN xu = xr ELSE IF test > 0 THEN xl = xr ELSE ea = 0 END IF IF ea < es OR iter ≥ imax EXIT END DO BisectResult = xr END PROGRAM 12

 An alternative method to bisection, sometimes faster.  Exploits a graphical perception, join f(x l ) and f(x u ) by a straight line. The intersection of this line with the x axis represents an improved estimate of the root.  The fact that the replacement of the curve by a straight line gives a “false position” of the root is the origin of the name, method of false position, or in Latin, regula falsi.  It is also called the linear interpolation method. 13

 Can derive the method’s formula by using similar triangles. The intersection of the straight line with the x axis can be estimated as  which can be solved for x r 14

 The value of x r so computed then replaces whichever of the two initial guesses, x l or x u, yields a function value with the same sign as f(x r ).  By this way, the values of x l and x u always bracket the true root. The process is repeated until the root is estimated.  The algorithm is identical to the one for bisection with the exception that the above eq. is used for step 2 (slide 9).  The same stopping criteria are used to terminate the computation (slides 10 and 11). 15

16 for some cases false-position method may show slow convergence

Download ppt "Dr. Marco A. Arocha Aug, 2014 1.  “Roots” problems occur when some function f can be written in terms of one or more dependent variables x, where the."

Similar presentations