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Chapter 6: Meiosis Is The Basis For Sexual Reproduction

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6: Meiosis Is The Basis For Sexual Reproduction"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6: Meiosis Is The Basis For Sexual Reproduction

2 6.1 Meiosis Pages

3 6.01 Illustrate and describe the basic processes of cell division
Meiosis gametes are produced with half the chromosomes numbers as body cells Occurs in the sex cells

4 6.01.1 State and briefly describe the eight phases of meiosis
DNA replication occurs only once during the process of meiosis. Meiosis I: the result is two daughter cells. Meiosis II: the result is four haploid cells, each with half the number of chromosomes.

5 6.01.1 Meiosis I Prophase I Double stranded chromosomes and
spindle fibers appear. Chromosomes come together in matching pairs.

6 Meiosis I Metaphase I The pairs of chromosomes line up in the center of the cell. Their centromeres become attached to the spindle fibers.

7 Meiosis I Anaphase I Each double-stranded chromosome separates
Chromosomes pulled to opposite ends of the cell.

8 Meiosis I Telophase I The cytoplasm divides and two cells form.
Each chromosome is still double-stranded and pulled to each pole of the cell.

9 Meiosis II begins Prophase II
The double-stranded chromosomes and spindle fibers reappear in each cell.

10 Meiosis II Metaphase II
The double-stranded chromosomes move to the center of the cell. The centromeres attach to spindle fibers.

11 Meiosis II Anaphase II The centromere divides, and the chromosome separate. Sister chromatids move to opposite poles of the cell.

12 Meiosis II Telophase II A nuclear membrane forms around the
Chromosomes. Each nucleus contains only half the number of chromosomes

13 Vidoes…Meiosis

14 Meiosis Summary Give hand-out with summary of meiosis

15 Define haploid Half the genetic content (n)

16 Define Diploid Genetic material is equal to the parent Full genetic content (2n)

17 6.02 Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.
In body cells Two daughter cells Same number of chromosomes as parent cell Asexual reproduction In sex organs to produce sex cells Four daughter cells Half number of chromosomes as parent cell Sexual reproduction

18 6.02 Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.

19 6.03 Organize data using format that is appropriate to the experiment
Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis Core Lab Activity 6-1B (pages )

20 6.04 Compile and display data using a variety of formats
Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis Core Lab Activity 6-1B (pages )

21 6.05 Receive, understand, and act on the ideas of others
Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis Core Lab Activity 6-1B (pages )

22 6.06 Work cooperatively members to carry out a planned activity
Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis Core Lab Activity 6-1B (pages )

23 6.2 Sexual Reproduction Pages

24 6.07 Distinguish between sexual and asexual reproduction in organisms.
Bacteria Virsus Plants Rarely animals Sexual Reproduction Plants (seeds) Most Land Animals Internal Fertilization Most Aquatic Animals External Fertilization

25 6.08 Explain how various organisms reproduce sexually
Mosses External fertilization Water allows the egg and sperm cells to meet Reproduces both sexually and asexually

26 6.08 continued… Flowering Plants Pollination Transfer of male
gametes in structures called pollen to the female structure of the plant.

27 Pollination Bees and other insects Fruit bats Wind Water After fertilization, seeds are often protected in fruit or cones. Seeds contain the fertilized eggs or plant embryos

28 6.08 continued… Insects Internal Fertilization In many insects, the
male deposits a package of sperm inside the female. Insects often change between hatching and adulthood This change in form is called metamorphosis. Metamorphosis can be incomplete or complete.

29 6.09 Compare and contrast complete and incomplete metamorphosis
Three stages The adult, egg and the nymph The adult and nymph resemble one another

30 6.09 Compare and contrast complete and incomplete metamorphosis
Four stages The adult, egg, pupa and larva Adult and larva look completely different


32 6.10 Compare and contrast sexual and asexual reproduction
One parent cell Cell divides Very little variation in offspring Very little energy required Little or no parental care Two parent cells 2 sex cells unite to form zygote Greater variation in offspring Large amount of energy required Lot of parental care involved in raising offspring

33 6.3 Human Reproductive Systems

34 6.11 Compare the structure and function of the human reproductive system.

35 6.11.1 Identify the major parts of the male reproductive system
Penis…male external sex organ Vas Deferens…two tubes that sperm travel through from testicles to urethra Scrotum…supports and regulates temperature of testicles during sperm production

36 continued… Testicles…gland which produces male hormone (testosterone) and male sex cell (sperm) Epididymis…comma-shaped structure located on testicles where sperm are stored and transported to vas deferens

37 6.11.2 Identify the major parts of the female reproductive system.
Vagina…muscular tube which expands to fit penis and birth of baby Cervix…narrow inner part of vagina which leads to uterus Uterus…muscular tube which nourishes and holds the fetus

38 6.11.2 Identify the major parts of the female reproductive system.
Ovary…produces female hormones (estrogen and progesterone) and female sex cell (egg) Oviduct…two tubes which allow eggs to travel from ovaries to the uterus. Site of fertilization.

39 Fertilization First Trimester Second trimester Third Trimester
6.12 Describe major stages of development from conception to early infancy. Fertilization First Trimester Second trimester Third Trimester

40 1. Fertilization Occurs in fallopian tube
Egg and sperm unite to form zygote Zygote moves to implant in uterine lining Embryo is term used for first 8 weeks

41 2. First Trimester At 8 weeks, embryo is called fetus
Organ systems begin to develop Zygote is now called embryo All major organs are formed by end of 12 weeks.

42 3. Second Trimester Rapid growth Skelton forms
Mother will feel movement by 20 weeks. Growth slows between 20 and 24 weeks.

43 4. Third Trimester Growth in preparation for birth
Significant changes in the brain. Immune system develops Fat is deposited under the skin.

44 6.13 Identify visible signs of pregnancy.
Menstruation stops Hips will become slightly larger Breast become larger Weight gain and abdomen will bulge Nausea and dizziness Cravings

45 6.4 Studying Genetic Changes

46 6.14 Identify major shifts in scientific understanding of genetics.
Four major works that caused a shift in our understanding of genetics: Gregor Mendel Watson and Crick Human Genome Project Genetic Engineering

47 1. Gregor Mendel Gregor Mendel Mid-1800s
Experimented with inherited traits in pea plants.

48 Mendel’s work with pea plants

49 2. Watson and Crick 1953 Described the structure of DNA and how it replicates.

50 Watson and Crick

51 3. Human Genome Project Genome: consists of the full set of genetic material that makes up an organism. Made a map to identify genes This information may be used to check for particular diseases.

52 4. Genetic Engineering

53 Videos…

54 6.15 Provide examples of genetic conditions that cannot be cured using present knowledge.
Three examples of diseases that cannot be cured at present: Down’s Syndrome Cystic Fibrosis Alderdice Syndrome

55 1. Down’s Syndrome Karyotypes can help identify certain if there
are abnormalities in the chromosomes Karyotypes can identify syndromes such as Down’s Syndrome (extra 21st chromosome)

56 1. Down’s Syndrome

57 2. Cystic Fibrosis

58 2. Cystic Fibrosis

59 3. Alderdice Syndrome Allderdice syndrome where part of one chromosome is reversed. Trait is passed from the mother to offspring (31%) Individuals have low birth weights, hand and facial abnormalities and both mental and physical challenges Identified in Sandy Point NL by Dr. Penny Allderdice


61 6.16 Provide examples of knowledge of cellular functions that resulted in the development of technologies.

62 6.17 Provide examples of Canadian contributions to science and technology related to genetic engineering

63 6.18 Evaluate information and evidence gathered on the topic of genetics and genetic engineering.
Can be used to save the genetic information from endangered plants and animals To mass-produce an organism with a desired trait. Human-assisted Cloning Two types: Reproductive cloning Therapeutic cloning

64 1. Reproductive Cloning Also called DNA cloning
Purpose is to produce a genetic duplicate of an existing organism with desirable qualities. Reproductive cloning of sheep

65 1. Reproductive Cloning

66 2. Therapeutic Cloning Used to correct health problems. Stem cells and
embryonic stem cells are able to become many different types of cells.

67 Cloning Videos

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