3 6.01 Illustrate and describe the basic processes of cell division Meiosisgametes are producedwith half thechromosomes numbersas body cellsOccurs in the sexcells
4 6.01.1 State and briefly describe the eight phases of meiosis DNA replication occurs only once during the process of meiosis.Meiosis I: the result is two daughter cells.Meiosis II: the result is four haploid cells, each with half the number of chromosomes.
5 6.01.1 Meiosis I Prophase I Double stranded chromosomes and spindle fibers appear.Chromosomes cometogether in matchingpairs.
6 Meiosis IMetaphase IThe pairs of chromosomes line up in the center of the cell.Their centromeres become attached to the spindle fibers.
7 Meiosis I Anaphase I Each double-stranded chromosome separates Chromosomes pulled to opposite ends of the cell.
8 Meiosis I Telophase I The cytoplasm divides and two cells form. Each chromosome is still double-stranded and pulled to each pole of the cell.
9 Meiosis II begins Prophase II The double-stranded chromosomes and spindle fibers reappear in each cell.
10 Meiosis II Metaphase II The double-stranded chromosomes move to the center of the cell.The centromeres attach to spindle fibers.
11 Meiosis IIAnaphase IIThe centromere divides, and the chromosome separate.Sister chromatids move to opposite poles of the cell.
12 Meiosis II Telophase II A nuclear membrane forms around the Chromosomes.Each nucleus containsonly half the number ofchromosomes
16 Define DiploidGenetic material is equal to the parentFull genetic content (2n)
17 6.02 Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis. In body cellsTwo daughter cellsSame number of chromosomes as parent cellAsexual reproductionIn sex organs to produce sex cellsFour daughter cellsHalf number of chromosomes as parent cellSexual reproduction
24 6.07 Distinguish between sexual and asexual reproduction in organisms. BacteriaVirsusPlantsRarely animalsSexual ReproductionPlants (seeds)Most Land AnimalsInternal FertilizationMost Aquatic AnimalsExternal Fertilization
25 6.08 Explain how various organisms reproduce sexually MossesExternal fertilizationWater allows the egg and sperm cells to meetReproduces both sexually and asexually
26 6.08 continued… Flowering Plants Pollination Transfer of male gametes in structurescalled pollen to thefemale structure of theplant.
27 PollinationBees and other insectsFruit batsWindWaterAfter fertilization, seeds are often protected in fruit or cones.Seeds contain the fertilized eggs or plant embryos
28 6.08 continued… Insects Internal Fertilization In many insects, the male deposits apackage of sperminside the female.Insects often change between hatching and adulthoodThis change in form is called metamorphosis.Metamorphosis can be incomplete or complete.
29 6.09 Compare and contrast complete and incomplete metamorphosis Three stagesThe adult, egg and the nymphThe adult and nymph resemble one another
30 6.09 Compare and contrast complete and incomplete metamorphosis Four stagesThe adult, egg, pupa and larvaAdult and larva look completely different
32 6.10 Compare and contrast sexual and asexual reproduction One parent cellCell dividesVery little variation in offspringVery little energy requiredLittle or no parental careTwo parent cells2 sex cells unite to form zygoteGreater variation in offspringLarge amount of energy requiredLot of parental care involved in raising offspring
34 6.11 Compare the structure and function of the human reproductive system.
35 6.11.1 Identify the major parts of the male reproductive system Penis…male external sex organVas Deferens…two tubes that sperm travel through from testicles to urethraScrotum…supports and regulates temperature of testicles during sperm production
36 continued…Testicles…gland which produces male hormone (testosterone) and male sex cell (sperm)Epididymis…comma-shaped structure located on testicles where sperm are stored and transported to vas deferens
37 6.11.2 Identify the major parts of the female reproductive system. Vagina…muscular tube which expands to fit penis and birth of babyCervix…narrow inner part of vagina which leads to uterusUterus…muscular tube which nourishes and holds the fetus
38 6.11.2 Identify the major parts of the female reproductive system. Ovary…produces female hormones (estrogen and progesterone) and female sex cell (egg)Oviduct…two tubes which allow eggs to travel from ovaries to the uterus. Site of fertilization.
39 Fertilization First Trimester Second trimester Third Trimester 6.12 Describe major stages of development from conception to early infancy.FertilizationFirst TrimesterSecond trimesterThird Trimester
40 1. Fertilization Occurs in fallopian tube Egg and sperm unite to form zygoteZygote moves to implant in uterine liningEmbryo is term used for first 8 weeks
41 2. First Trimester At 8 weeks, embryo is called fetus Organ systems begin to developZygote is now called embryoAll major organs are formed by end of 12 weeks.
42 3. Second Trimester Rapid growth Skelton forms Mother will feel movement by 20 weeks.Growth slows between 20 and 24 weeks.
43 4. Third Trimester Growth in preparation for birth Significant changes in the brain.Immune system developsFat is deposited under the skin.
44 6.13 Identify visible signs of pregnancy. Menstruation stopsHips will become slightly largerBreast become largerWeight gain and abdomen will bulgeNausea and dizzinessCravings
46 6.14 Identify major shifts in scientific understanding of genetics. Four major works that caused a shift in ourunderstanding of genetics:Gregor MendelWatson and CrickHuman Genome ProjectGenetic Engineering
47 1. Gregor Mendel Gregor Mendel Mid-1800s Experimented with inherited traits in pea plants.
59 3. Alderdice SyndromeAllderdice syndrome where part of one chromosome is reversed.Trait is passed from the mother to offspring (31%)Individuals have lowbirth weights, hand andfacial abnormalities andboth mental and physicalchallengesIdentified in SandyPoint NL by Dr. PennyAllderdice
61 6.16 Provide examples of knowledge of cellular functions that resulted in the development of technologies.
62 6.17 Provide examples of Canadian contributions to science and technology related to genetic engineering
63 6.18 Evaluate information and evidence gathered on the topic of genetics and genetic engineering. Can be used to save the genetic information from endangered plants and animalsTo mass-produce an organism with a desired trait.Human-assisted CloningTwo types:Reproductive cloningTherapeutic cloning
64 1. Reproductive Cloning Also called DNA cloning Purpose is to produce a genetic duplicate of an existing organism with desirable qualities.Reproductive cloning of sheep