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Fall 2010/Lecture 311 CS 426 (Fall 2010) Public Key Encryption and Digital Signatures

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Fall 2010/Lecture 312 Review of Secret Key (Symmetric) Cryptography Confidentiality –stream ciphers (uses PRNG) –block ciphers with encryption modes Integrity –Cryptographic hash functions –Message authentication code (keyed hash functions) Limitation: sender and receiver must share the same key –Needs secure channel for key distribution –Impossible for two parties having no prior relationship –Needs many keys for n parties to communicate

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Fall 2010/Lecture 313 Public Key Encryption Overview Each party has a PAIR (K, K -1 ) of keys: –K is the public key, and used for encryption –K -1 is the private key, and used for decryption –Satisfies D K -1 [E K [M]] = M Knowing the public-key K, it is computationally infeasible to compute the private key K -1 –How to check (K,K -1 ) is a pair? –Offers only computational security. PK Encryption impossible when P=NP, as deriving K -1 from K is in NP. The public-key K may be made publicly available, e.g., in a publicly available directory –Many can encrypt, only one can decrypt Public-key systems aka asymmetric crypto systems

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Fall 2010/Lecture 314 Public Key Cryptography Early History The concept is proposed in Diffie and Hellman (1976) “New Directions in Cryptography” –public-key encryption schemes –public key distribution systems Diffie-Hellman key agreement protocol –digital signature Public-key encryption was proposed in 1970 by James Ellis –in a classified paper made public in 1997 by the British Governmental Communications Headquarters Concept of digital signature is still originally due to Diffie & Hellman

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Fall 2010/Lecture 315 Public Key Encryption Algorithms Almost all public-key encryption algorithms use either number theory and modular arithmetic, or elliptic curves RSA –based on the hardness of factoring large numbers El Gamal –Based on the hardness of solving discrete logarithm –Basic idea: public key g x, private key x, to encrypt: [g y, g xy M].

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Fall 2010/Lecture 316 RSA Algorithm Invented in 1978 by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman –Published as R L Rivest, A Shamir, L Adleman, "On Digital Signatures and Public Key Cryptosystems", Communications of the ACM, vol 21 no 2, pp120-126, Feb 1978 Security relies on the difficulty of factoring large composite numbers Essentially the same algorithm was discovered in 1973 by Clifford Cocks, who works for the British intelligence

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Fall 2010/Lecture 317 RSA Public Key Crypto System Key generation: 1. Select 2 large prime numbers of about the same size, p and q Typically each p, q has between 512 and 2048 bits 2. Compute n = pq, and (n) = (q-1)(p-1) 3. Select e, 1<e< (n), s.t. gcd(e, (n)) = 1 Typically e=3 or e=65537 4. Compute d, 1< d< (n) s.t. ed 1 mod (n) Knowing (n), d easy to compute. Public key: (e, n) Private key: d

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Fall 2010/Lecture 318 RSA Description (cont.) Encryption Given a message M, 0 < M < nM Z n {0} use public key (e, n) compute C = M e mod n C Z n {0} Decryption Given a ciphertext C, use private key (d) Compute C d mod n = (M e mod n) d mod n = M ed mod n = M

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Fall 2010/Lecture 319 Plaintext: M C = M e mod (n=pq) Ciphertext: C C d mod n From n, difficult to figure out p,q From (n,e), difficult to figure d. From (n,e) and C, difficult to figure out M s.t. C = M e

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Fall 2010/Lecture 3110 RSA Example p = 11, q = 7, n = 77, (n) = 60 d = 13, e = 37 (ed = 481; ed mod 60 = 1) Let M = 15. Then C M e mod n –C 15 37 (mod 77) = 71 M C d mod n –M 71 13 (mod 77) = 15

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RSA Example 2 Parameters: –p = 3, q = 5, q= pq = 15 – (n) = ? Let e = 3, what is d? Given M=2, what is C? How to decrypt? Fall 2010/Lecture 3111

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Fall 2010/Lecture 3112 RSA Security Security depends on the difficulty of factoring n –Factor n => (n) => compute d from (e, (n)) The length of n=pq reflects the strength –700-bit n factored in 2007 –768 bit factored in 2009 1024 bit for minimal level of security today –likely to be breakable in near future Minimal 2048 bits recommended for current usage NIST suggests 15360-bit RSA keys are equivalent in strength to 256-bit RSA speed is quadratic in key length

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Real World Usage of Public Key Encryption Often used to encrypt a symmetric key –To encrypt a message M under a public key (n,e), generate a new AES key K, compute [RSA(n,e,K), AES(K,M)] Plain RSA does not satisfy IND requirement. –How to break it? One often needs padding, e.g., Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (OAEP) –Roughly, to encrypt M, chooses random r, encode M as M’ = [X = M H 1 (r), Y= r H 2 (X) ] where H 1 and H 2 are cryptographic hash functions, then encrypt it as (M’) e mod n –Note that given M’=[X,Y], r = Y H 2 (X), and M = X H 1 (r) Fall 2010/Lecture 3113

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Fall 2010/Lecture 3114 Digital Signatures: The Problem Consider the real-life example where a person pays by credit card and signs a bill; the seller verifies that the signature on the bill is the same with the signature on the card Contracts, they are valid if they are signed. Signatures provide non-repudiation. –ensuring that a party in a dispute cannot repudiate, or refute the validity of a statement or contract. Can we have a similar service in the electronic world? –Does Message Authentication Code provide non-repudiation? Why?

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Fall 2010/Lecture 3115 Digital Signatures MAC: One party generates MAC, one party verifies integrity. Digital signatures: One party generates signature, many parties can verify. Digital Signature: a data string which associates a message with some originating entity. Digital Signature Scheme: –a signing algorithm: takes a message and a (private) signing key, outputs a signature –a verification algorithm: takes a (public) key verification key, a message, and a signature Provides: –Authentication, Data integrity, Non-Repudiation

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Fall 2010/Lecture 3116 Digital Signatures and Hash Very often digital signatures are used with hash functions, hash of a message is signed, instead of the message. Hash function must be: –Pre-image resistant –Weak collision resistant –Strong collision resistant

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Fall 2010/Lecture 3117 RSA Signatures Key generation (as in RSA encryption): Select 2 large prime numbers of about the same size, p and q Compute n = pq, and = (q - 1)(p - 1) Select a random integer e, 1 < e < , s.t. gcd(e, ) = 1 Compute d, 1 < d < s.t. ed 1 mod Public key: (e, n)used for verification Secret key: d, used for generation

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Fall 2010/Lecture 3118 RSA Signatures (cont.) Signing message M Verify 0 < M < n Compute S = M d mod n Verifying signature S Use public key (e, n) Compute S e mod n = (M d mod n) e mod n = M Note: in practice, a hash of the message is signed and not the message itself.

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Fall 2010/Lecture 3119 The Big Picture Secrecy / Confidentiality Stream ciphers Block ciphers + encryption modes Public key encryption: RSA, El Gamal, etc. Authenticity / Integrity Message Authentication Code Digital Signatures: RSA, DSA, etc. Secret Key Setting Public Key Setting

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Fall 2010/Lecture 3120 Readings for This Lecture Differ & Hellman: –New Directions in Cryptography

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Fall 2010/Lecture 3121 Coming Attractions … Key management and certificates

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