2 Introduction: Instruments have a vital role in controlling aircraft They are means of communicating data between the aircraft systems and the controller (the Pilot)Content and format of data displays are standard. Why?For easier control and less mental effort
3 Common forms of Displays QuantitativeQualitative
4 Quantitative Displays: Data is presented in terms of a numerical value and by the relative position between a pointer or index and a graduated scaleExample:An Airspeed Indicator
5 Data is presented in pictorial or symbolic format Qualitative DisplaysData is presented in pictorial or symbolic formatExample:Attitude Director Indicator
6 Instrument Panels and Layouts Primary Data must be in the pilot’s line of visionIndications are so coordinated as to create a ‘picture’ of the aircraft flight conditionImportant for instruments to be properly grouped to maintain coordinationMust assist pilot in observing them with minimum effort
7 Vertical Speeded Indicator The ‘Basic Six’ LayoutAirspeed IndicatorGyroHorizonAltitude IndicatorTurn & Bank IndicatorVertical Speeded IndicatorDirection Indicator
8 The Basic ‘T’ layout Attitude Director Indicator Altitude Indicator Mach & Airspeed IndicatorVertical Speed IndicatorRadio Magnetic IndicatorHorizontal Situation Indicator
9 Types of Indicators Analogue Indicators Electronic displays Mechanical Instruments showing a pointer moving on a dial or scale.Used mainly in older generation AircraftElectronic displaysInstrumentation in the form of a CRT or LCD display.Used in modern Aircraft
10 Example of an Analogue Instrument: An Analogue Altimeter which indicates ‘Altitude’
11 Example of an Electronic Instrument: Electronic Attitude Director Indicator (EADI) or Primary Flight Display. It also displays Altitude and Airspeed
12 Another example of an Electronic Instrument: Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI) or Navigation Flight Display. It also displays Weather information
13 Boeing 737-200 Cockpit – all instruments are analogue The Analogue CockpitBasic T-displaysBoeing Cockpit – all instruments are analogue
14 Airbus A320 cockpit – Almost all instruments are digital displays The ‘Glass’ CockpitBasic T layout displayAirbus A320 cockpit – Almost all instruments are digital displays
15 Airbus A340 cockpit – Almost all instruments are digital displays Basic T layout displayAirbus A340 cockpit – Almost all instruments are digital displays
16 Boeing 737 ‘New Generation’ Glass Cockpit Basic T layout displayBoeing 737 ‘New Generation’ Glass Cockpit
17 Another Glass Cockpit – The Boeing 747 modern generation aircraft Basic T layout displayAnother Glass Cockpit – The Boeing 747 modern generation aircraft
18 Major difference between cockpits AnalogueBasic T-layout consists of separate analogue instrumentsSeparate T-layout for Pilot and Co-pilotGlassBasic T-layout grouped in 2 CRT’sOne common T-layout spread on whole instrument panel
19 Electronic Instrument Systems All modern aircraft use electronic display devicesEIDS (Electronics Instrument Display Systems)EFIS (Electronic Flight Instrument Systems)Highly sophisticated technology providing the pilot with attitude and navigation information
20 Electronic Instrument Systems Divided into two main sections:Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)Aircraft and System Monitoring Instrument System
22 The Airbus A320 EIS Cockpit Layout MCDUND or EHSI – Displays Nav. Info. And WeatherPFD or EADI – Displays Attitude, Airspeed, Altitude, etc.ECAM system displaysPrinterThe Airbus A320 EIS Cockpit Layout
23 Features of the EIS system All is controlled by a Central Processing Unit (Data Management Unit)Parameters, Error messages and maintenance data can be retrieved via MCDU or a PrinterData filtering: Important data accentuated; temporary unimportant suppressedInformation can be transferred from one monitor to another
24 More features and advantages of EIS systems Variability and VarietyColoured DisplaysAll monitors/displays for the system are the same (ie: less components needed)Brightness controlled automatically depending upon the level of sunlightData can be sent via Radio to ground (ACARS – Arinc Communication Addressing and Reporting Systems)
25 One disadvantage however: In bright sunlight it might be more difficult to read monitor indications than it was with analogue indicators.
26 Monitoring systems Part of Electronic Instrument System: On Airbus: ECAM system (Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring)On Boeing:EICAS system (Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System)
27 ECAM system: Monitors aircraft functions and relays them to the pilots Produces messages detailing failuresIn certain cases lists procedures to undertake to correct problemsColour coded warning scheme helps pilots to instantly assess the situationECAM system:
28 EFIS/ECAM system components (Airbus) Engine/warning CRTCRT control and transferPFDNDSystem/Status CRTECAM Control PanelMCDUEFIS/ECAM system components (Airbus)Printer
29 The Engine/Warning CRT Display shows: Engine ParametersFuel on BoardFlight Control positionWarning/caution messagesMemo (when no failure exist)
30 System/Status CRT Display shows: System synoptic diagramsStatus messages
31 The ECAM Control Panel Allows selection of system/status pages Suppression and recall of warning/caution messagesPressing ‘ALL’ will allow successive presentation of all system pages.
32 The MCDU and Printer MCDU (Multifunction Control & Display Unit) The heart of the A320/319.Everything that the airbus can do, can be controlled from this unit, including Maintenance Tests.Aircraft Performance Data as well as Maintenance Data can be printed on a Printer.
33 CRT switching Data can be transferred between displays Very useful in the case of CRT failure
34 EICAS system:Provide aircraft engines parameters such as RPM, temperature values, fuel flow, etc.Monitors systems like hydraulic, air-conditioning, electrical, etc.Generates crew annunciations and warnings.
35 EFIS/EICAS System Components (Boeing) EICAS Caution and Annunciation PanelEngine Primary DisplayEngine Secondary Display or Status/Maintenance DisplayCRT switching Control PanelEFIS/EICAS System Components (Boeing)
36 EICAS Display UnitsEngine Primary Display and Warning DisplayEngine Secondary Display and Status/Maintenance Display
38 ECAM/EFIS/EICAS Display MESSAGE Colour Coding: RED: WarningAMBER: CautionGREEN: Normal OperationBLUE: Action to be carried outIn addition to the CRT display, warnings and cautions generate an attention getter and audible sound in the cockpit.