2 Essential Questions What is justice? What issues resonate across cultures?How are arguments are developed?
3 Unpacking EA 2BPrompt: Develop an argument about an issue that resonates across cultures. Choose a position, a target audience, and effective structure to convey your argument. DO NOW: Deconstruct the above prompt. What skills and knowledge do you need to have to complete this prompt?
4 Develop an argument about an issue that resonates across cultures Develop an argument about an issue that resonates across cultures. Choose a position, a target audience, and effective structure to convey your argument.SkillsKnowledge
5 Arguing for JusticeAn argument usually focuses on a topic of interest to many people.The topic may have many sides or only two sides: for OR againstRead “Arguing for Justice” on pagesComplete Justice Chart on page 139 to begin thinking about terms related to justice and your associations.
6 Rhetorical Appeals (Persuasive Language) Pathos – emotional appealDescribes the writer’s appeal to an audience's emotions.Logos – logical appealDescribes the writer’s appeal to the reader’s logic/reason by making a reasonable claim and offering proof in support of that claim, whether the reader agrees or not.Ethos – ethical appealDescribes the writer’s appeal that relies on the credibility of the author. The reader asks themselves, "What does this person know about this topic?" and "Why should I trust this person?"
7 "50% of marriages end in divorce" "My mother was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis when I was twelve. I saw her pain and suffering which is why I want to support MS research.""Before I was president, I was the governor of New York.""As your doctor, I have to tell you that if you don't stop smoking, you're going to die."
8 Analyze Rhetorical Appeals “On Surrender at Bear Paw Mountain, 1877” (150)“On Women’s Right to Vote” ( )
9 Elements of Argument Claim – the thesis of the argument Evidence - support for the claim/thesisCommentary- explanation of why and how the evidence supports the claimCounterclaims – a position taken by someone with an opposing viewpoints or evidence that disagrees with your thesisConcession – admission that the opposing side has valid pointsRefutations – Evidence or reasoning that negates the counterclaimsConclusion – concluding statement that pulls the claim and evidence together to create a call to action
10 Forms of EvidenceEvidence - used to support a thesis/claim in an argumentEmpirical evidence – based on experience and direct observation through researchLogical evidence – based on facts and a clear rationaleAnecdotal evidence – based on personal accounts6th block finished here and read Time for american
11 Identifying Elements of an Argument Read “Time to Assert American Values” (142)Identify the claim.Identify the evidence.What types of evidence are used?Identify the concessions.Identify the refutation.Identify the call to action.How did the write signal the conclusion?
12 Reasoning & Evidence To evaluate an argument: Determine whether a writer’s reasoning is validDetermine if the evidence provided sufficiently supports the claimBe aware of the use of common fallacies
13 Analyzing an ArgumentRead from Mohandas Ghandi’s “On Civil Disobedience” (148)Identify intended audience.Identify claim.Identify supporting evidence.Identify the organization of the argument.
14 Common FallaciesHasty Generalizations – a conclusion based on insufficient or biased evidence; rushing to a conclusionEither/Or – a conclusion that oversimplifies the argument by reducing it to only two choicesAd Populum – an emotional appeal that speaks to positive or negative feelings rather than the real issueMoral Equivalence – a comparison of minor misdeeds with major atrocitiesRed Herring – a diversionary tactic that avoids the key issues, often by avoiding opposing arguments(146)See page 146 for example of each
15 Evaluating Reasoning Look back at from “On Civil Disobedience” Identify examples of fallacious reasoning (common fallacies)
16 Unpacking EA 2BPrompt: Develop an argument about an issue that resonates across cultures. Choose a position, a target audience, and effective structure to convey your argument. DO NOW: Deconstruct the above prompt. What skills and knowledge do you need to have to complete this prompt?