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Rise of independent regional powers

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Presentation on theme: "Rise of independent regional powers"— Presentation transcript:

1 Rise of independent regional powers

2 Rise of regional powers
Disintegration of Mughal Empire – political vacuum – filled by several independent and semi – independent regional powers – some rebelled against Mughal authority while in others the governors took advantage of the situation and asserted their independence Rise of regional powers

3 The Marathas One of the most important regional powers
Had power and potential to establish an all – India empire

4 Shahu Shahu – grandson of Shivaji – imprisoned by Aurangzeb – released in 1707 (after Aurangzeb’s death) Maratha war of succession – Shahu became the next heir with the help of Balaji Vishwanath- chief minister / Peshwa / mukh pradhan Became ease – loving and weak – ceremonial head – real authority – Peshwa – second phase of Maratha history – dominance of Peshwas – empire (1713 – 1818)

5 Balaji Vishwanath Took advantage of Mughal’s weaknesses – important concessions – enhance power, prestige of Marathas. Shivaji’s territories conquered by Aurangzeb given back to Shahu. Right to levy chauth and sardeshmukhi from 6 Mughal provinces in the Deccan – granted to Marathas 1719 – Helped Sayyid brothers defeat Farrukhsiyar Made Marathas a formidable power

6 Balaji Vishwanath Laid the foundations of a hereditary, dynastic rule of Peshwas Succeded by his son Baji Rao I

7 Baji Rao I a military genius, bold, dynamic
Maratha kingdom became an empire – series of brilliant campaigns Mughal provinces divided into ‘spheres of influence’ Prominent Maratha families from Sindhia, Bhonsle, Holkar, Gaekwad – had chiefs – ruled ‘spheres of influence’ Chiefs enjoyed maximum autonomy Maratha confederacy – loose union of Maratha chiefs – headed by the Peshwa

8 Balaji Baji Rao father Baji Rao I - acquired the throne at 18 years
Became the official head of the Maratha empire – death of Shahu Poona / Pune – headquarters of the Peshwas – capital of the Maratha empire Continued policy of expansion – height of power and glory North India – the power behind the Mughal throne

9 Ahmad Shah Abdali Afghan general
Faced the Marathas when they conquered Punjab Defeated the Maratha army - Third Battle of Panipat – 1761 Marathas failed in replacing the Mughal Empire and Afghans failed in capitalizing their victory – ideal condition for entry of English East India Company

10 Bengal One of the richest provinces of the Mughal empire
Decline of Mughal authority – the governor of Bengal Murshid Quli Khan – paid annual tribute but tried to free himself from Mughal control – began to rule independently.

11 Murshid Quli Khan excellent administrator exceptional abilities
freed Bengal from external and internal dangers. established stability, peace and prosperity

12 Alivardi Khan promoted trade
encouraged merchants (Indian and foreign) to carry on trade in Bengal did not allow French and British merchants to fortify factories in Chandernagore and Calcutta

13 Bengal Nawabs of Bengal – could not understand the ulterior motives of the British trading company Nawabs – overconfident about their abilities and underestimated the power of the British

14 Bengal Army – no reorganization and weak
Corruption – bribes – high ranking officials Happy hunting ground for British to fulfill their aggressive and imperialistic ambitions

15 Awadh (Oudh) Sadaat Khan - governor – laid its foundation

16 Saadat Khan intelligent, efficient, daring good administrative skills
maintained law and order introduced revenue reforms strengthened army

17 Safdar Jung Saadat Khan’s nephew
Brought about stability, peace, prosperity

18 Shuja – ud - Daulah Safdar Jung’s son
Maintained peace and economic prosperity Growth of refined and distinct Laknavi culture Lucknow – capital city – centre for creative and performing arts, literature and architecture

19 Hyderabad Founded by Mughal viceroy of the Deccan – Nizam – ul – Mulk – Asaf Jah – 1724 Wars of succession after his death – soft target for British and French companies

20 Nizam – ul – Mulk Asaf Jah
did not officially declare himself independent ruled Hyderabad like an independent ruler established an efficient administrative system removed corruption from the revenue system promoted trade protected the state from internal and external threats

21 The Carnatic One of the subahs of Deccan
Initially – under the control of Nizam of Hyderabad Nawab of Carnatic - freed himself from Nizam’s control – established hereditary rule Wars of succession, political instability – opportunity for European trading companies to interfere in its internal affairs – make territorial, commercial and financial gains

22 Mysore 17th century – collapse of powerful Vijaynagar empire – rise of a number of independent kingdoms – wars Mysore – remained independent – inspite of repeated attacks 18th century – Hyder Ali – leader of Mysore – one of the most powerful kingdoms on the south

23 Hyder Ali exceptional qualities and abilities
rose from ordinary soldier to commander – merit and determination made Mysore a prosperous and powerful state dangerous rival of English East India Company in the South

24 Tipu Sultan Hyder Ali’s son – a worthy successor
Introduced many reforms to overhaul and reorganize administrative machinery Modernised army Strengthened economy – encouraging agriculture, trade, industry Serious challenge to British power

25 The Rajputs principal Rajput states – Jaipur (Amber), Jodhpur (Marwar), Udaipur (Mewar) – took advantage of declining Mughal power – asserted independence No unity – did not consolidate their position Made no efforts to establish Rajput empire on debris of Mughal empire Followed individual goals, interests – divergent and conflicting

26 The Rajputs Indulged in petty quarrels
Followed the tradition of court intrigues, conspiracy, treachery, corruption from the Mughal courts Became vulnerable to the selfish designs of the English East India Company

27 Raja Sawai Jai Singh ruler of Amber
Interest in astronomy – Jantar Mantar founded Jaipur - scientifically planned social reformer – prevent sati, female infanticide

28 The Sikh kingdom Guru Govind Singh - tenth and last Sikh guru – military brotherhood of Sikhs – ‘Khalsa’ Peace loving Sikhs - martial spirit – helped in the struggle against the persecution of the Mughals Invasion of Nadir Shah, Ahmad Shah Abdali – weakened Mughal control – Sikhs moved in – controlled Jammu and Kashmir – last decades of 18th century

29 The Sikh kingdom Loose confederacy of 12 misls or groups - each misl governed by a chief - Ranjit Singh – one chief Ranjit Singh – a born leader – brought all Sikh chiefs west of Satluj - under his control – master of Punjab – end of 18th century 1809 – signed treaty of perpetual friendship with Lord Minto – Governor General of English East India Company

30 The Sikh kingdom Treaty of Amritsar – accepted Satluj river – boundary between Sikh kingdom and British territories and British promised not to interfere with the affairs of the Sikh kingdom Ranjit Singh conquered more territories in north and west 1839 – death of Ranjit Singh – master of powerful kingdom – Khyber Pass in the north to Sindh in the south

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