Presentation on theme: "Poverty Alleviation and Forest Conservation- A Case Study"— Presentation transcript:
1 Poverty Alleviation and Forest Conservation- A Case Study MCT Phase IV DehradunDate:Rajive Kumar, Project Director, Uttar Pradesh Participatory Forest Management and Poverty Alleviation Project
2 Issues about Poverty and Forest Conservation The rural poor often depend on forests for a wide range of natural resources and ecosystem services essential for their well-being, and are therefore potentially affected by its degradation.Against this backdrop, conservationists, development practitioners and policy makers often have differing opinions on how—and whether—to link forest conservation with poverty reduction.
3 Despite the promises of conservationists that they can deliver green sustainable development, around the world extreme rural poverty continues to show a disturbing correlation with the richest forests.Natural riches, however well protected, do not translate into better lives for the most vulnerable. Indeed, often those who live closest to nature seem to gain the least from its protection.Indeed, the linkages between forest and poverty are much more complex and dynamic that often assumed.
4 Exploring potential of forests Forest largely viewed as natural capital but they also add toFinancial Capital: Income from forestHuman Capital: Improved food security, agriculture.Social Wellbeing:Forest provide non material goods that contribute to livelihood by enhancing social and human capital.Forestry initiatives that supportaccess to resources,participatory decision making andequityassist in increasing well-being specially that of the poor
5 Exploring potential of forests More than 1.6 billion people in the world depend to varying degrees on forests for their livelihoods.Worldwide, forest industries provide employment for 60 million people.Some one billion people depend on drugs derived from forest plants for their medicinal needs (World Bank, 2001)Fuel wood continues to be vital for many poor producers and consumers.Bulk of rural households in developing countries use firewood as domestic source of energy.Firewood markets share important pro-poor features with other NTFPs.
6 Exploring potential of forests Of the 68 million tribal population of India, 50% still depend on the forest resources for various livelihood requirements viz., food, fodder, medicine, small timber and variety of other NTFPs (Bhattacharya and Hayat, 2004)In India, over half of its forest revenues and about 70% of export income is contributed by NTFP (Shekhar et al., 1993)The enterprise supports about 10 million people in the cottage industry of rolling the final product.NTFP collection accounts for 1063 million person-days (2.9 million persons years) of employment in India
7 Exploring potential of forests Among the Non-Wood Forest Products (NWFPs), tendu leaves (leaves of Diospyros Melanoxylon) used as wrapper for making bidis (country cigarettes) are the most important.The importance of forest product income is usually more in the way it fills gaps and complements other income, than in its absolute magnitude or share of overall household income (Byron and Arnold, 1999)Thus forest has large potentials for livelihood.Forest has also large potential for gainful employment.
8 The greatest of evils and the worst of crimes is poverty George Bernard Shaw
9 - Narayan et al., 2000; Sunderlin et al., 2005 Poverty scenario in India –Poverty is more than just being economically weak or having a low income. It involves broader deprivation of well-being and quality of life, including social isolation and powerlessness.- Narayan et al., 2000; Sunderlin et al., 2005
10 Link between Forest and Poverty The state of forests is actually as much as threatened by wealth as by poverty.Poverty is a cause of forest loss.Forest loss contributes to maintain or even increase poverty.This implies that economic development and poverty reduction should help to improve forest condition, andDevelopment of forest resources and improvement in forest conditions can be an important vehicle for poverty reduction.
11 Link between Forest and Poverty People dependent on forest for their livelihood : Around millionNo. of villages located in and around forest : 1.73 LakhsAbout 40% of poor people of India live in forest fringe villages.Strong correlation between the tribal concentrated areas, forest and poverty.
12 How to Link Conservation With Poverty Alleviation Forest management together with poverty alleviation programmes.Involve communities in decision making.Livelihood Security Enhancement and Income Generating Activities.Conservation strategies must be linked with livelihood.Issue of benefit sharing.Non forestry Income generating activities should be promoted.With this in background we have a JICA assisted project in UP.
13 A brief onUttar Pradesh Participatory Forest Management and Poverty Alleviation Project
14 FORESTS ON THE ROAD MAP OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE STATE Enhancement of forest and tree cover from existing 9.26% of the State’s geographical area to 20% by the year would not only fullfil an obligation emanated from National Forest Policy but also provide a launching pad for the development of the State in terms of production of renewable resources in shape of timber, NWFP; employment generation, equity, social justice ,sustained supply to industries like paper and pulp wood and other timber based industries. The enhancement in tree cover and improvement of forest would also help the State in contributing to nullify ill effects of climate change by providing the tree cover as a sink against the noxious pollutants.
17 Project GoalsParticipatory rehabilitation and management of degraded forests.Enhancement of livelihood of local people17
18 Project ObjectivesTo restore degraded forest and to augment forest resources.To secure sustainable forest management by improving Forest administration, Community organization and other stake holders.To conserve and better manage the wild life.To improve the income of target forest dependents and their livelihood options.
19 Project ApproachThere are four approaches to be followed to achieve the project goals:Participatory forest management by JFMC/ EDC together with UPFD formulating micro-plans;More emphasis on NWFP and fodder grasses and establishing benefit-sharing mechanism to support livelihoods and incomesFocus on village-level micro-enterprises to be managed by JFMC/ EDC/ SHG; andCapacity building
20 Project Components Preparatory Work Supporting Comp. Main Component Institutional ArrangementSoil SurveySite SelectionDemarcation, Survey & MappingPreparation of Guidelines, Manuals & HandbookSupporting Comp.Main ComponentSupporting Comp.Forest Area Development (JFM Mode)Survey & ResearchInstitutionalStrengtheningForest Area Development (Non-JFM Mode)Capacity BuildingOfJFMC/EDC/SHGCommunication &PublicationWildlife Conservation & ManagementCommunity Development & Livelihood ImprovementMonitoring and EvaluationPhase-out/Phase-in WorkConsulting Services
21 Institutional Arrangement for UP-PFMPAP EMPOWERED COMMITTEEChairperson: Chief SecretaryFinance DepartmentFundThrough Budgetary allocationPROJECT IMPLEMENTING Unit (PMU)(Autonomous registered society)AdviseForest DepartmentGoverning BodyChairperson: PS, ForestsVice Chairperson: PCCFMember Secretary: CPDProject Management Consultant (PMC)Office of PCCFHEADQUARTERChief Project Director: APCCF/ CCFAs grantsOversight responsibilityDistrict Level Project Advisory CommitteeResource OrganisationsZonal Office [CCF]NGO Support OrganisationsCircle Office [CF]Divisional Management Unit (DMUs)Within DFO officeImplementingorganizationsJFMCsEDCsPartner NGOsField Management Units (FMUs)Within RO officeSHGs
22 What make this Project different Micro-PlanningWetlandNotification of the JFM areaFOREST USER GROUPForest VillageModerately Dense ForestNon-Natural Resource baseNatural Resource baseSHGDense ForestForest Resource base (NWFP)JFMCOpen/ degraded ForestForest DepartmentParticipatory M&E (Social Audits)PARTNERSHIPNo. of BeneficiariesGround of Estimation*JFMCs96,000800 JFMCs x 120 household (HHs)EDCs22,400140 EDCs x 160 HHsTotal118,400
23 Sub-total (Direct Cost) (No.1~11) Project CostNo.ComponentCost (Rs. Million)%1Preparatory Works32.00.6%2Institutional Strengthening of PMU/DMUs/FMUs417.97.5%3Capacity Building of NGO/JFMC/EDC/SHG102.11.8%4JFMC/EDC Community Development and Livelihood Improvement827.614.6%5Departmental Forest Development and Management717.012.9%6JFM Forest Development and Management1,701.230.5%7Wildlife Conservation and Management44.60.8%8Survey and Research41.20.7%9Communication and Publication43.510Monitoring and Evaluation32.523232311Phase-out/phase-in Works0.0-12Sub-total (Direct Cost) (No.1~11)3,959.671.0%13Administration Cost687.012.3%14Sub-total (No.12+13)4,646.683.3%15Price Contingency225.04.0%16Sub-total (No.14+No.15)4,871.687.3%17Physical Contingency204.73.7%18Consulting Services293.55.2%19Tax and Duties209.020Grand Total (No.16~19)5,578.8100.0%Item 4 and 6 contributes around 45% of the total cost
24 Expected BenefitProject ComponentProject ActivityBenefitValue(Rs. mil.)ForestDevelopment andManagementTimber ProductionStumpage value of Teak (Tectona grandis)1,988Stumpage value of Sal (Shorea robusta)446Stumpage value of Sisso (Dalbergia sissoo)330Fuel Wood ProductionProduction of Fuel Wood987NTFP DevelopmentProduction of Khair (Acacia catechu)2,648Production of Amla (Embilica Officinalis)9,050Production of Chironji (Buchanania lanjan)2,789Production of Salai (Boswellia serrata)261Production of Harra (Terminalia chebula)10,087Production of Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus, etc.)9,472Fodder DevelopmentProduction of Grass323Forest Development and ManagementFire Damage Prevention212Carbon Sequestration675Soil Conservation712Wildlife Conservation and ManagementEcotourismDevelopment482Community Development and Livelihood DevelopmentIGA by SHGs andSHG ConsortiumIGA5,649Total46,10974% share of NTFP and 12% share of IGAs by SHGs is expected
27 JFMC/ EDC – emerging as Institutions JFMCs are created under UP Village Forests Joint Management Rules, 2002 that ensuresNotification of ‘village forest’ as defined in section 28 of Indian Forest Act, 1927Constitution of Forest User Group (FUG)JFMC to sign agreement/ MOU with the UPFD to jointly manage the village forestPerform functions and duties, and exercise powers as defined in JFM Rules of year 2002EDCs are created under resolution of Government of Uttar Pradesh made in year 1999
28 Additional Features under the project Registration under Societies Act, 1860Notification of village forest (with site demarcation and erection of boundary pillars) and signing of MOU with UPFDAllocation of forest land for plantation purpose having forest type in category of a) very dense forest, b) moderately dense, and c) open degraded and scrub forestNomination of Executives officers (President, Treasurer, Book keeper, Secretary)Constitution of eight Working GroupsMembership fee collection on annual basisSelf-Help Groups (SHGs) as sub-group of FUG or forest-dependent family to be constituted for income generation
29 Expectations from JFM/ EDC Now JFMC are expected to function as autonomous institutions, and as partner to the UPFDHowever, eco-development has focus on sustainable management, development and utilization of forest & its resources.
30 How Micro Plan is visualized in the project? Micro-plan under the project would have two dimensions:Participatory Management of village forest under JFM 2002 Rules and MOD provisionsCommunity Development and Livelihood ImprovementIt is also important to know and connect Micro-Plan with Working PlanUnder which Working Circle notified “Village Forest” comes, andWhat prescription is made by the Working Plan officer
31 Thus, important elements of Micro-Plan are Vision of JFMC/ EDC for next five-years and beyond as registered societyPlan to execute activities envisaged under the projectConvergence and dove-tail plans (through District-level Advisory Committee - DLAC)Activities for which funds are available under the project for project durationAlternate source of fund to realize activities not supported by the project but needed and high on priority of the communityExit Policy and fund mobilization strategy beyond project-life
32 How could Micro-Plan be evolved in this? Baseline of Village Forest – stocks/ resourcesBuilt capacities of JFMCs/ EDCsSite demarcated and Base map 1:5000 scale (digital)MICRO PLANResearch’s Inputs – Work norms & JFM / NWFP modelsBaseline: Socio-economic - & resource utilizationTechnical guidance & support by UPFD (under MOU)
33 FUG meeting in Bhujpur JFMC, Sumerpur, Hamirpur Seed showing in Village Forest area by FUG in village Sahira, Lalganj, Mirzapur
34 Is life possible without livelihood? What is there for livelihood in the project?
35 Definition of Livelihood A livelihood comprises :the capabilities,assets (including both material and social resources) andactivities required for a means of living.A livelihood is sustainablewhen it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks andmaintain or enhance its capabilities and assets both now and in future,while not undermining the natural resource base.- Chambers and Conway, 1992
36 Income Generating Activities through SHGs Forest based /Natural Resource Based/ Non-Natural Resource Based IGA/ Micro-enterprise activitiesFormation and Funding of SHG/ Micro-EnterpriseMarketing Research and Support by resource organizations (to identify, development of the product profile and non-destructive harvesting techniques, business plan and marketing strategies)36
37 SHG FormationInternal saving and book keeping (Commonly known as Rotating Saving and Credit activities).Financial support of Rs. 1.1 lac (Rs 1 lac seed fund and Rs10000 as support fund to each SHG)Till date 1664 SHGs have been formed against and internal savings started.579 SHGs have been funded by the Project till date.37
38 IGA Training in Kanwa JFMC, FMU Babhni, Renukoot Demonstration of nursery technique of Satawar & Kal meghMap of Dhauha village forest area, FMU Chunar, Mirzapur
39 Discussion on Business Plan with SHGs in Naugarh, Kashi by PMC team SHG grading in Sonah EDC, Dudhwa, Dudhwa
40 SHG members (Trainees) field visit to Udyamita Vikas Sansthan, Chitrakoot IGA Training in Kanwa JFMC, Babhni, Renukoot
41 Nursery done by Jai hind SHG under IGA; JFMC Baghnari, FMU Gurma, Kaimur Consensus Building in Village Khadiya, FMU Motipur, Katarniaghat
43 Resource Organizations' Details Name of Resource OrganizationTask AllocatedState Forest Research Institute, M.P. JabalpurNTFP Resource Assessment and DevelopmentHarvesting and Post-Harvesting Technology of NTFPDevelopment Alternatives, New DelhiMarket Research, Business Plan Development, Product Profiling, Product Development Protocol, Trade Linkage and Networking for potential IGA/SMEIndian Institute of Forest Management, BhopalNTFP Marketing including Certification
44 Livelihood Security Enhancement Also popularly known as Entry Point Activities.Basically for the development of village.More targeted for socio-economic weaker section of village.More emphasis on JFMC building construction.Other popular activities are tent house, handpumps, wells.Support of Rs.1.80 lacs.
45 Solar light installed through Convergence, Musahidpur EDC, Chakiya, Kashi Construction of well (EPA), Goderkhurd JFMC, Patehra, Mirzapur
46 FUG listing on House wall, Kevatam JFMC, Ramgarh, Sonbhadra Production Kit distribution, Exposure visit at Renukoot Division
48 Benefit SharingTimber, Bamboo and Tendu-pattaIncome = Sale Proceeds – (Actual Expenditure + Overhead expenses)Situation 3: In case of Bamboo only if UPFC opts outSituation 1: Regular courseSituation 2: Large scale felling due to calamitiesJFMCUFPDRoyalty by JFMCTotal sale proceedsJFMCUFPD50% IncomeJFMCUFPDBalance Income10% Income or one lakh
49 Benefit Sharing…2Income = Sale Proceeds – (Actual Expenditure + Overhead expenses)NWFP other than Tendu-patta and Medicinal plantsMedicinal Plants (Raw form)JFMCUFPDToken money by JFMC100% IncomeJFMCUFPDToken money100% Income
50 Budgetary FlowBudgetary flow to JFMC/ EDC would be strictly divided with establishing two different accounts in a JFMC/ EDC village –JFMC Account (for forestry work)Village Development Fund (VDF) (for village development work)This has been created to avoid probable mixing-up of expenditure between forestry work and village development work.Different sources and management/ utilization has been suggested to the two accounts
51 Budgetary flow model for JFMC DMUFunds during project periodJFMC Account(For Forestry Work)VDF Account(For Village Development Work)3/4th1/4thCash fines for illegal fellingGrazing FeeReturned principal & Interest from SHG LoanSHGBenefit Share of JFMC
52 Utilization of Income by JFMC Income for various sources3/4th Benefit share / earnings1/4th Benefit share / earningsJFMC Account(For Forestry Work)VDF Account(For Village Development Work)Seed MoneyFUG DividendCommunity Development1/4th Benefit share / earnings for each
53 AR-CDM initiative in UP PFMPAP India is a signatory to Kyoto Protocol 1992AR-CDM is a tool to get CER Credits to communities (JFMCs)Provision of Study within project area for registration of AR-CDM Projects with United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).TERI has been selected for this study and work is in progress.Survey of the village forests of first batch JFMCs has been completed and around 5000 ha land has been identified for submission of Project Design Document (PDD) to UNFCCC through MoEF10 Prior Consideration Forms for 10 PDDs have been submitted to UNFCCC53
55 GISDensity Improvement Analysis: Through change detection analysis (comparison) of satellite imageries (LISS IV and Carto sat I data) of 20 forest divisions. Image based maps have been completed for 04 divisions of Vindhyanchal Region and 02 divisions of Terai 02 div of Bundelkhand
59 MIS Development All major modules rolled out. The project is developing web based information flow through in-house development of MIS-10 modules.All major modules rolled out.All Financial Transactions of PMU are online from FY
60 GIS and MIS interfaceAll physical activities will be evaluated on GIS based platform for pre-project and end term (spatial and temporal level) including forest type stratification and growing stock estimationAll villages will be covered with MIS and GIS linkages.In the first stage the web based MIS is being developed for Divisions. After its evaluation it will be developed for range level. This can be adapted for use in the department.
61 M&E mechanismMIS: Physical and Financial Reporting (every month on prescribed formats/ template)Use of GIS for spatial analysisPerformance IndicatorsAnnual Work Plan (drawn on the basis of implementation schedule vis-à-vis scope defined in the TOR)Reviews (meetings, field visits)Ad-hoc StudiesSurveys
62 Project Information Reporting Plan PlanningFinancialAmount allocatedAmount sanctionedExpenditure detailsDetails of procurementPhysicalSocio-economicTrainingInputsfromPMUStatus of forestPlantation activitiyGroundwater levelSoil erosionWildlife conservationJFMC membersIncome levelAvailability of fodderMilk yield & productionCrop yiled & productionIncome from forest (NWFP)MISGISOthersMonitoringMapsProgress in plantation activityArea wise species plantedProgress in water/soil conservation activitiesMonitoring of wildlife conservation measuresGrowth of planted treesIssues concerning implementationSuggestions/ FeedbackMonitoring of activities of institutionsAlternative livelihood development activitiesPeople’s perception toward forestActive participation of villagers in JFM activitiesAvailability of fodderTraining scheduleList of participants attendedTimely completion of trainingFeedbackSpatialAttributeForest legal boundary mapForest division mapVillage boundary mapJFM location mapLand use / land cover mapInputsfromFTIDetails of procurementExpenditure detailsMapsReports
63 Social audit in Bargawan JFMC, Jugail, Obra Social Audit in Bajaddi JFMC, Shankargarh, Allahabad
64 Lessons learntProvide space to all stakeholders in decision making including planning, implementation and monitoringPoverty alleviation could not be merely achieved through employment generation but by empowering community as a wholeForest alone can not sustain the livelihood of people.Handholding and guidance for a longer periodEnabling Policy environment and uniform policy regimeRules and Regulations including amending laws to facilitate processes
65 Community centric decision making PartnershipsInter-sectoral linkage and ConvergenceTransparency and AccountabilityInstitutional arrangement coherent with existing statutory bodies for local governance to avoid overlap and conflictsPost project budgetary supportContinuity of Policy
66 A bird in the sky does not sing because it wants to win a musical competition OR Someone HAS TOLD HER to SINGIt sings because it has discovered a freedom song inside its own heart!