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Poverty Alleviation and Forest Conservation- A Case Study

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1 Poverty Alleviation and Forest Conservation- A Case Study
MCT Phase IV Dehradun Date: Rajive Kumar, Project Director, Uttar Pradesh Participatory Forest Management and Poverty Alleviation Project

2 Issues about Poverty and Forest Conservation
The rural poor often depend on forests for a wide range of natural resources and ecosystem services essential for their well-being, and are therefore potentially affected by its degradation. Against this backdrop, conservationists, development practitioners and policy makers often have differing opinions on how—and whether—to link forest conservation with poverty reduction.

3 Despite the promises of conservationists that they can deliver green sustainable development, around the world extreme rural poverty continues to show a disturbing correlation with the richest forests. Natural riches, however well protected, do not translate into better lives for the most vulnerable. Indeed, often those who live closest to nature seem to gain the least from its protection. Indeed, the linkages between forest and poverty are much more complex and dynamic that often assumed.

4 Exploring potential of forests
Forest largely viewed as natural capital but they also add to Financial Capital: Income from forest Human Capital: Improved food security, agriculture. Social Wellbeing: Forest provide non material goods that contribute to livelihood by enhancing social and human capital. Forestry initiatives that support access to resources, participatory decision making and equity assist in increasing well-being specially that of the poor

5 Exploring potential of forests
More than 1.6 billion people in the world depend to varying degrees on forests for their livelihoods. Worldwide, forest industries provide employment for 60 million people. Some one billion people depend on drugs derived from forest plants for their medicinal needs (World Bank, 2001) Fuel wood continues to be vital for many poor producers and consumers. Bulk of rural households in developing countries use firewood as domestic source of energy. Firewood markets share important pro-poor features with other NTFPs.

6 Exploring potential of forests
Of the 68 million tribal population of India, 50% still depend on the forest resources for various livelihood requirements viz., food, fodder, medicine, small timber and variety of other NTFPs (Bhattacharya and Hayat, 2004) In India, over half of its forest revenues and about 70% of export income is contributed by NTFP (Shekhar et al., 1993) The enterprise supports about 10 million people in the cottage industry of rolling the final product. NTFP collection accounts for 1063 million person-days (2.9 million persons years) of employment in India

7 Exploring potential of forests
Among the Non-Wood Forest Products (NWFPs), tendu leaves (leaves of Diospyros Melanoxylon) used as wrapper for making bidis (country cigarettes) are the most important. The importance of forest product income is usually more in the way it fills gaps and complements other income, than in its absolute magnitude or share of overall household income (Byron and Arnold, 1999) Thus forest has large potentials for livelihood. Forest has also large potential for gainful employment.

8 The greatest of evils and the worst of crimes is poverty
George Bernard Shaw

9 - Narayan et al., 2000; Sunderlin et al., 2005
Poverty scenario in India – Poverty is more than just being economically weak or having a low income. It involves broader deprivation of well-being and quality of life, including social isolation and powerlessness. - Narayan et al., 2000; Sunderlin et al., 2005

10 Link between Forest and Poverty
The state of forests is actually as much as threatened by wealth as by poverty. Poverty is a cause of forest loss. Forest loss contributes to maintain or even increase poverty. This implies that economic development and poverty reduction should help to improve forest condition, and Development of forest resources and improvement in forest conditions can be an important vehicle for poverty reduction.

11 Link between Forest and Poverty
People dependent on forest for their livelihood : Around million No. of villages located in and around forest : 1.73 Lakhs About 40% of poor people of India live in forest fringe villages. Strong correlation between the tribal concentrated areas, forest and poverty.

12 How to Link Conservation With Poverty Alleviation
Forest management together with poverty alleviation programmes. Involve communities in decision making. Livelihood Security Enhancement and Income Generating Activities. Conservation strategies must be linked with livelihood. Issue of benefit sharing. Non forestry Income generating activities should be promoted. With this in background we have a JICA assisted project in UP.

13 A brief on Uttar Pradesh Participatory Forest Management and Poverty Alleviation Project

Enhancement of forest and tree cover from existing 9.26% of the State’s geographical area to 20% by the year would not only fullfil an obligation emanated from National Forest Policy but also provide a launching pad for the development of the State in terms of production of renewable resources in shape of timber, NWFP; employment generation, equity, social justice ,sustained supply to industries like paper and pulp wood and other timber based industries. The enhancement in tree cover and improvement of forest would also help the State in contributing to nullify ill effects of climate change by providing the tree cover as a sink against the noxious pollutants.

15 Logo of the project

16 Project area 16 16

17 Project Goals Participatory rehabilitation and management of degraded forests. Enhancement of livelihood of local people 17

18 Project Objectives To restore degraded forest and to augment forest resources. To secure sustainable forest management by improving Forest administration, Community organization and other stake holders. To conserve and better manage the wild life. To improve the income of target forest dependents and their livelihood options.

19 Project Approach There are four approaches to be followed to achieve the project goals: Participatory forest management by JFMC/ EDC together with UPFD formulating micro-plans; More emphasis on NWFP and fodder grasses and establishing benefit-sharing mechanism to support livelihoods and incomes Focus on village-level micro-enterprises to be managed by JFMC/ EDC/ SHG; and Capacity building

20 Project Components Preparatory Work Supporting Comp. Main Component
Institutional Arrangement Soil Survey Site Selection Demarcation, Survey & Mapping Preparation of Guidelines, Manuals & Handbook Supporting Comp. Main Component Supporting Comp. Forest Area Development (JFM Mode) Survey & Research Institutional Strengthening Forest Area Development (Non-JFM Mode) Capacity Building Of JFMC/EDC/SHG Communication & Publication Wildlife Conservation & Management Community Development & Livelihood Improvement Monitoring and Evaluation Phase-out/Phase-in Work Consulting Services

21 Institutional Arrangement for UP-PFMPAP
EMPOWERED COMMITTEE Chairperson: Chief Secretary Finance Department Fund Through Budgetary allocation PROJECT IMPLEMENTING Unit (PMU) (Autonomous registered society) Advise Forest Department Governing Body Chairperson: PS, Forests Vice Chairperson: PCCF Member Secretary: CPD Project Management Consultant (PMC) Office of PCCF HEADQUARTER Chief Project Director: APCCF/ CCF As grants Oversight responsibility District Level Project Advisory Committee Resource Organisations Zonal Office [CCF] NGO Support Organisations Circle Office [CF] Divisional Management Unit (DMUs) Within DFO office Implementing organizations JFMCs EDCs Partner NGOs Field Management Units (FMUs) Within RO office SHGs

22 What make this Project different
Micro-Planning Wetland Notification of the JFM area FOREST USER GROUP Forest Village Moderately Dense Forest Non-Natural Resource base Natural Resource base SHG Dense Forest Forest Resource base (NWFP) JFMC Open/ degraded Forest Forest Department Participatory M&E (Social Audits) PARTNERSHIP No. of Beneficiaries Ground of Estimation* JFMCs 96,000 800 JFMCs x 120 household (HHs) EDCs 22,400 140 EDCs x 160 HHs Total 118,400

23 Sub-total (Direct Cost) (No.1~11)
Project Cost No. Component Cost (Rs. Million) % 1 Preparatory Works 32.0 0.6% 2 Institutional Strengthening of PMU/DMUs/FMUs 417.9 7.5% 3 Capacity Building of NGO/JFMC/EDC/SHG 102.1 1.8% 4 JFMC/EDC Community Development and Livelihood Improvement 827.6 14.6% 5 Departmental Forest Development and Management 717.0 12.9% 6 JFM Forest Development and Management 1,701.2 30.5% 7 Wildlife Conservation and Management 44.6 0.8% 8 Survey and Research 41.2 0.7% 9 Communication and Publication 43.5 10 Monitoring and Evaluation 32.5 232323 11 Phase-out/phase-in Works 0.0 - 12 Sub-total (Direct Cost) (No.1~11) 3,959.6 71.0% 13 Administration Cost 687.0 12.3% 14 Sub-total (No.12+13) 4,646.6 83.3% 15 Price Contingency 225.0 4.0% 16 Sub-total (No.14+No.15) 4,871.6 87.3% 17 Physical Contingency 204.7 3.7% 18 Consulting Services 293.5 5.2% 19 Tax and Duties 209.0 20 Grand Total (No.16~19) 5,578.8 100.0% Item 4 and 6 contributes around 45% of the total cost

24 Expected Benefit Project Component Project Activity Benefit Value (Rs. mil.) Forest Development and Management Timber Production Stumpage value of Teak (Tectona grandis) 1,988 Stumpage value of Sal (Shorea robusta) 446 Stumpage value of Sisso (Dalbergia sissoo) 330 Fuel Wood Production Production of Fuel Wood 987 NTFP Development Production of Khair (Acacia catechu) 2,648 Production of Amla (Embilica Officinalis) 9,050 Production of Chironji (Buchanania lanjan) 2,789 Production of Salai (Boswellia serrata) 261 Production of Harra (Terminalia chebula) 10,087 Production of Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus, etc.) 9,472 Fodder Development Production of Grass 323 Forest Development and Management Fire Damage Prevention 212 Carbon Sequestration 675 Soil Conservation 712 Wildlife Conservation and Management Ecotourism Development 482 Community Development and Livelihood Development IGA by SHGs and SHG Consortium IGA 5,649 Total 46,109 74% share of NTFP and 12% share of IGAs by SHGs is expected

25 Key Actors at Implementation level
FMU NSO Resource Orgs. Partner NGO Gram Panchayat Line Departments Community JFMC/ EDC Animator

26 JFMCs/ EDCs – How are they located?

27 JFMC/ EDC – emerging as Institutions
JFMCs are created under UP Village Forests Joint Management Rules, 2002 that ensures Notification of ‘village forest’ as defined in section 28 of Indian Forest Act, 1927 Constitution of Forest User Group (FUG) JFMC to sign agreement/ MOU with the UPFD to jointly manage the village forest Perform functions and duties, and exercise powers as defined in JFM Rules of year 2002 EDCs are created under resolution of Government of Uttar Pradesh made in year 1999

28 Additional Features under the project
Registration under Societies Act, 1860 Notification of village forest (with site demarcation and erection of boundary pillars) and signing of MOU with UPFD Allocation of forest land for plantation purpose having forest type in category of a) very dense forest, b) moderately dense, and c) open degraded and scrub forest Nomination of Executives officers (President, Treasurer, Book keeper, Secretary) Constitution of eight Working Groups Membership fee collection on annual basis Self-Help Groups (SHGs) as sub-group of FUG or forest-dependent family to be constituted for income generation

29 Expectations from JFM/ EDC
Now JFMC are expected to function as autonomous institutions, and as partner to the UPFD However, eco-development has focus on sustainable management, development and utilization of forest & its resources.

30 How Micro Plan is visualized in the project?
Micro-plan under the project would have two dimensions: Participatory Management of village forest under JFM 2002 Rules and MOD provisions Community Development and Livelihood Improvement It is also important to know and connect Micro-Plan with Working Plan Under which Working Circle notified “Village Forest” comes, and What prescription is made by the Working Plan officer

31 Thus, important elements of Micro-Plan are
Vision of JFMC/ EDC for next five-years and beyond as registered society Plan to execute activities envisaged under the project Convergence and dove-tail plans (through District-level Advisory Committee - DLAC) Activities for which funds are available under the project for project duration Alternate source of fund to realize activities not supported by the project but needed and high on priority of the community Exit Policy and fund mobilization strategy beyond project-life

32 How could Micro-Plan be evolved in this?
Baseline of Village Forest – stocks/ resources Built capacities of JFMCs/ EDCs Site demarcated and Base map 1:5000 scale (digital) MICRO PLAN Research’s Inputs – Work norms & JFM / NWFP models Baseline: Socio-economic - & resource utilization Technical guidance & support by UPFD (under MOU)

33 FUG meeting in Bhujpur JFMC, Sumerpur, Hamirpur
Seed showing in Village Forest area by FUG in village Sahira, Lalganj, Mirzapur

34 Is life possible without livelihood?
What is there for livelihood in the project?

35 Definition of Livelihood
A livelihood comprises : the capabilities, assets (including both material and social resources) and activities required for a means of living. A livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks and maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets both now and in future,while not undermining the natural resource base. - Chambers and Conway, 1992

36 Income Generating Activities through SHGs
Forest based /Natural Resource Based/ Non-Natural Resource Based IGA/ Micro-enterprise activities Formation and Funding of SHG/ Micro-Enterprise Marketing Research and Support by resource organizations (to identify, development of the product profile and non-destructive harvesting techniques, business plan and marketing strategies) 36

37 SHG Formation Internal saving and book keeping (Commonly known as Rotating Saving and Credit activities). Financial support of Rs. 1.1 lac (Rs 1 lac seed fund and Rs10000 as support fund to each SHG) Till date 1664 SHGs have been formed against and internal savings started. 579 SHGs have been funded by the Project till date. 37

38 IGA Training in Kanwa JFMC, FMU Babhni, Renukoot Demonstration of nursery technique of Satawar & Kal megh Map of Dhauha village forest area, FMU Chunar, Mirzapur

39 Discussion on Business Plan with SHGs in Naugarh, Kashi by PMC team
SHG grading in Sonah EDC, Dudhwa, Dudhwa

40 SHG members (Trainees) field visit to Udyamita Vikas Sansthan, Chitrakoot
IGA Training in Kanwa JFMC, Babhni, Renukoot

41 Nursery done by Jai hind SHG under IGA; JFMC Baghnari, FMU Gurma, Kaimur
Consensus Building in Village Khadiya, FMU Motipur, Katarniaghat

42 Lac culture Tasar

43 Resource Organizations' Details
Name of Resource Organization Task Allocated State Forest Research Institute, M.P. Jabalpur NTFP Resource Assessment and Development Harvesting and Post-Harvesting Technology of NTFP Development Alternatives, New Delhi Market Research, Business Plan Development, Product Profiling, Product Development Protocol, Trade Linkage and Networking for potential IGA/SME Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal NTFP Marketing including Certification

44 Livelihood Security Enhancement
Also popularly known as Entry Point Activities. Basically for the development of village. More targeted for socio-economic weaker section of village. More emphasis on JFMC building construction. Other popular activities are tent house, handpumps, wells. Support of Rs.1.80 lacs.

45 Solar light installed through Convergence, Musahidpur EDC, Chakiya, Kashi
Construction of well (EPA), Goderkhurd JFMC, Patehra, Mirzapur

46 FUG listing on House wall, Kevatam JFMC, Ramgarh, Sonbhadra
Production Kit distribution, Exposure visit at Renukoot Division

47 JFMC Office Building, Bihuni Khurd JFMC, Rath, Hamirpur

48 Benefit Sharing Timber, Bamboo and Tendu-patta Income = Sale Proceeds – (Actual Expenditure + Overhead expenses) Situation 3: In case of Bamboo only if UPFC opts out Situation 1: Regular course Situation 2: Large scale felling due to calamities JFMC UFPD Royalty by JFMC Total sale proceeds JFMC UFPD 50% Income JFMC UFPD Balance Income 10% Income or one lakh

49 Benefit Sharing…2 Income = Sale Proceeds – (Actual Expenditure + Overhead expenses) NWFP other than Tendu-patta and Medicinal plants Medicinal Plants (Raw form) JFMC UFPD Token money by JFMC 100% Income JFMC UFPD Token money 100% Income

50 Budgetary Flow Budgetary flow to JFMC/ EDC would be strictly divided with establishing two different accounts in a JFMC/ EDC village – JFMC Account (for forestry work) Village Development Fund (VDF) (for village development work) This has been created to avoid probable mixing-up of expenditure between forestry work and village development work. Different sources and management/ utilization has been suggested to the two accounts

51 Budgetary flow model for JFMC
DMU Funds during project period JFMC Account (For Forestry Work) VDF Account (For Village Development Work) 3/4th 1/4th Cash fines for illegal felling Grazing Fee Returned principal & Interest from SHG Loan SHG Benefit Share of JFMC

52 Utilization of Income by JFMC
Income for various sources 3/4th Benefit share / earnings 1/4th Benefit share / earnings JFMC Account (For Forestry Work) VDF Account (For Village Development Work) Seed Money FUG Dividend Community Development 1/4th Benefit share / earnings for each

53 AR-CDM initiative in UP PFMPAP
India is a signatory to Kyoto Protocol 1992 AR-CDM is a tool to get CER Credits to communities (JFMCs) Provision of Study within project area for registration of AR-CDM Projects with United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). TERI has been selected for this study and work is in progress. Survey of the village forests of first batch JFMCs has been completed and around 5000 ha land has been identified for submission of Project Design Document (PDD) to UNFCCC through MoEF 10 Prior Consideration Forms for 10 PDDs have been submitted to UNFCCC 53

54 Monitoring and Evaluation

55 GIS Density Improvement Analysis: Through change detection analysis (comparison) of satellite imageries (LISS IV and Carto sat I data) of 20 forest divisions. Image based maps have been completed for 04 divisions of Vindhyanchal Region and 02 divisions of Terai 02 div of Bundelkhand

56 SO-REN-Baghadu-I-Karri-12
Satellite Imagery Density Classification Vegetation Analysis Vegetation Type Area (Ha) % Area Scrub 0.44 0.25 Open Dense 1 5.59 3.22 Medium Dense 2 53.72 30.90 High Dense 1 114.10 65.63 Total 173.85 100.00

57 Padri Khurd State ARM September 2012 Padri Khurd


59 MIS Development All major modules rolled out.
The project is developing web based information flow through in-house development of MIS-10 modules. All major modules rolled out. All Financial Transactions of PMU are online from FY

60 GIS and MIS interface All physical activities will be evaluated on GIS based platform for pre-project and end term (spatial and temporal level) including forest type stratification and growing stock estimation All villages will be covered with MIS and GIS linkages. In the first stage the web based MIS is being developed for Divisions. After its evaluation it will be developed for range level. This can be adapted for use in the department.

61 M&E mechanism MIS: Physical and Financial Reporting (every month on prescribed formats/ template) Use of GIS for spatial analysis Performance Indicators Annual Work Plan (drawn on the basis of implementation schedule vis-à-vis scope defined in the TOR) Reviews (meetings, field visits) Ad-hoc Studies Surveys

62 Project Information Reporting Plan
Planning Financial Amount allocated Amount sanctioned Expenditure details Details of procurement Physical Socio-economic Training Inputs from PMU Status of forest Plantation activitiy Groundwater level Soil erosion Wildlife conservation JFMC members Income level Availability of fodder Milk yield & production Crop yiled & production Income from forest (NWFP) MIS GIS Others Monitoring Maps Progress in plantation activity Area wise species planted Progress in water/soil conservation activities Monitoring of wildlife conservation measures Growth of planted trees Issues concerning implementation Suggestions/ Feedback Monitoring of activities of institutions Alternative livelihood development activities People’s perception toward forest Active participation of villagers in JFM activities Availability of fodder Training schedule List of participants attended Timely completion of training Feedback Spatial Attribute Forest legal boundary map Forest division map Village boundary map JFM location map Land use / land cover map Inputs from FTI Details of procurement Expenditure details Maps Reports

63 Social audit in Bargawan JFMC, Jugail, Obra
Social Audit in Bajaddi JFMC, Shankargarh, Allahabad

64 Lessons learnt Provide space to all stakeholders in decision making including planning, implementation and monitoring Poverty alleviation could not be merely achieved through employment generation but by empowering community as a whole Forest alone can not sustain the livelihood of people. Handholding and guidance for a longer period Enabling Policy environment and uniform policy regime Rules and Regulations including amending laws to facilitate processes

65 Community centric decision making
Partnerships Inter-sectoral linkage and Convergence Transparency and Accountability Institutional arrangement coherent with existing statutory bodies for local governance to avoid overlap and conflicts Post project budgetary support Continuity of Policy

66 A bird in the sky does not sing because it wants to win a musical competition OR Someone HAS TOLD HER to SING It sings because it has discovered a freedom song inside its own heart!

67 Thanks for your kind attention!

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