2 Valving for Speech 4. Mechanics of voice control: *Voice can be controlled for:1) Pitch2) Loudness3) Quality4) Register in which voice is produced
3 Valving for speech cont... Mechanics of voice control:1) Register:-The mode of adjustment of the larynx by which voice is produced.-speech is produced almost always in one register, whereas singing many more.Three main registers:1) modal2) falsetto3) pulse
4 Modal Register Register used for speech Produces relatively low fund. frequencies (Fo)Also called “chest” or “heavy” registerGenerally vocal folds are short & thickStiffness of v.f.’s is relatively lowAmplitude of vibration is largeFolds tend to completely closeSignal is rich in harmonics
5 Falsetto Register Also called “light” register Produces a higher range of Fo’sVocalis is laxCricothyroid activity adjusts lengthLonger, thinner, stiffer folds (compared to register)Small amplitude of vibrationIncomplete closure of v.f.’sFewer higher harmonicsShutter-like appearance
6 Pulse Register Also known as “vocal fry” or “glottal fry” Low frequency registerSounds rough or deepUsed infrequently for speech or singingShort, thick & lax vocal foldsComplex vibratory pattern
7 Valving for Speech -Physical correlate is fundamental frequency, Mechanics of voice control cont.:2) Pitch:-Physical correlate is fundamental frequency,-Women’s Fo= Hz;-Men’s Fo= Hz-Pitch is and perceived variable,-Average Fo changes during the first 20 years, than stabilizes.
8 Pitch: Vocal Fold Thickness Pitch is determined by rate of vibration,In men folds are longer & thicker,v.f. thickness changes correlate better to pitch than length,But...stiffness from lengthening is the main determiner of pitch.LowPitchHighPitch
9 Valving for Speech Mechanics of voice control cont.: 3) Loudness:- The listener's response to the amount of energy in a sound.-Physical correlate is intensity,-Loudness varies with the volume & velocity of air, higher fundamental the greater the loudness,
10 Loudness cont...Greater the volume velocity of each glottal pulse the greater the loudness,Intensity increases as alveolar and subglottal pressures increases, inc. air escapesGlottal resistance increases with intensity (pressure can not rise without an equal increase in resistance)Louder the tone, longer vocal folds stay closed.
12 Valving for Speech Mechanisms of voice control cont.: 4) Quality: -distinctive characteristics of a tone, exclusive of its pitch & loudness,-3 distinct qualities:1) Breathiness2) Harshness3) Hoarseness
13 Breathiness Glottal adjustment offers enough resistance for vibration, Laryngeal adjustments:1) in the front- v.f.’s close but don’t touch, however close enough to generate tone and...2) in the back- glottal chink present which lets air escape to an excessive extent and...3) Excessively large glottal area in each cycle (large volume of air flow at low velocities)Folds barely close folds, low intensities
14 Harshness Also called “roughness” Associated with “gravely” voice Cause is irregularity in v.f. vibrationDuration irregularity= “jitter”(pitch perturbation)Intensity variability= “shimmer”
15 Hoarseness Combines both breathiness & harshness Results from irregular vibratory patterns in which leakage is excessiveEarly warning sign of vocal pathologyAperiodic vibration
16 Outside reading: (Textbook in library) Reading/AssignmentsOutside reading: (Textbook in library)Perkins, W.H. & Kent, R.D. (1986). Functional Anatomy of Speech, Language & Hearing, Allyn & BaconPgs