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Classification of Living Organisms. As living things are constantly being investigated, new attributes are revealed that affect how organisms are placed.

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Presentation on theme: "Classification of Living Organisms. As living things are constantly being investigated, new attributes are revealed that affect how organisms are placed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Classification of Living Organisms

2 As living things are constantly being investigated, new attributes are revealed that affect how organisms are placed in a standard classification system. 2

3 What is taxonomy? Taxonomy is the branch of biology concerned with the grouping and naming of organisms Biologists who study this are called taxonomists

4 How did it start? People wanted to organize their world so they began grouping, or classifying everything they saw.

5 Examples: Things that break down dead materials Things that reproduce sexually Things that are single-celled Things that have cell walls Things that eat other organisms Things that have a nucleus Things that are multicellular TPS: What categories of living things do you remember?

6 Why classify? To help us see relationships, similarities and differences To help us organize all the organisms we discover...

7 To give every species a name based on a standard method so scientists from different countries can talk about the same animal without confusion

8 Who is Carolus Linnaeus? Carolus Linnaeus was a Swedish botanist Developed a 7-level (taxa) classification system based on similarities between organisms

9 The Seven Level System Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Dear King Phillip Called Oprah For Good Spices

10 Domains Domains are the broadest taxonomic classification of living organisms The three Domains: Archaea Bacteria Eukarya 10

11 Domains are Divided into Kingdoms Archaea----- Archaebacteria Bacteria ------ Eubacteria Eukarya ------- Protist Fungi Plantae Animalia 11

12 How does it work? There are 6 broad kingdoms Every living thing that we know of fits into one of the six kingdoms Each level gets more specific as fewer organisms fit into any one group

13 Six Kingdoms of Life 13

14 The grouping of organisms into KINGDOMS is based on 3 factors: –1. Cell Type (prokaryotic or eukaryotic) –2. Cell Number (unicellular or multicellular) –3. Feeding Type (autotroph or heterotroph) 14

15 1. Cell Type- The presence or absence of cellular structures such as the nucleus, mitochondria, or a cell wall Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes 15

16 Prokaryotes – Bacteria! DO NOT HAVE : An organized nucleus Structured organelles 16

17 17

18 Eukaryotes DO HAVE: nucleus organized with a membrane other organelles 18

19 19

20 2 nd criteria for Kingdom Divisions: Cell Number Unicellular- single celled organism – protozoans, bacteria, some algae Multicellular- many celled organism – cells start to specialize/differentiate 20

21 UnicellularMulticellular 21

22 3 rd Criteria for Kingdom Divisions Feeding Type - How the organisms get their food –Autotroph or Producer Make their own food –Heterotroph or Consumer Must eat other organisms to survive Includes decomposers – those that eat dead matter! 22

23 6 Kingdoms Archaebacteria Eubacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Prokaryotes Eukaryotes 23

24 Archaebacteria Ancient bacteria- –Live in very harsh environments –extremophiles 24

25 Eubacteria It is the eubacteria that most people are talking about when they say bacteria, because they live in more neutral conditions. 25

26 Bacteria Bacteria are unicellular prokaryotes 26

27 Protists Protists include many widely ranging microbes, including slime molds, protozoa and primitive algae. Odds & Ends Kingdom 27

28 Protista Kingdom There are animal-like, fungus-like, and plant-like protists Some are beneficial Some protists can cause diseases in humans 28

29 Protists Nutrition Protists can be autotrophs or heterotrophs 29

30 Fungi Kingdom The Kingdom Fungi includes some of the most important organisms. By breaking down dead organic material, they continue the cycle of nutrients through ecosystems. 30

31 Fungi All fungi are eukaryotic They may be unicellular or multicellular All fungi have a cell wall Unicellular (yeast) Multicellular 31

32 Fungi Fungi can be very helpful and delicious Many antibacterial drugs are derived from fungi Fungi also causes a number of plant and animal diseases: Penicillin 32 Ringworm

33 Fungi Nutrition All fungi are heterotrophs - Saprophytes- get their nutrients from dead organic matter - Parasites – absorb from a host, eventually killing the host 33

34 Plant Kingdom All plants are multicellular, their cells having a cell wall, and… they are autotrophs 34

35 Animalia Kingdom All animals are: -Multicellular: cells lacking a cell wall -Heterotrophs -Capable of movement at some point in their lives. 35

36 CHECK YOUR WORK MAKE CORRECTIONS/ADDITIONS AS NEEDED At this point, your Characteristics of Kingdoms Comparison Matrix is complete 36

37 KingdomCell TypeCell #Feeding Type ArchaebacteriaProkaryoteUnicellularAutotroph EubacteriaProkaryoteUnicellularBoth ProtistaEukaryoteMost Unicellular Both FungiEukaryotebothHeterotroph PlantaeEukaryoteMulticellularAutotroph AnimaliaEukaryoteMulticellularHeterotroph Cell Wall Yes Yes & NO Yes NO 37 Characteristics of Kingdom Comparison Matrix Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukarya

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