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Chapters 20 & 21 Notes Kingdom Protista Where Do We Find Protists?  Protists live in water.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapters 20 & 21 Notes Kingdom Protista Where Do We Find Protists?  Protists live in water."— Presentation transcript:


2 Chapters 20 & 21 Notes

3 Kingdom Protista

4 Where Do We Find Protists?  Protists live in water.

5  Protists are found in: oceans, streams, pond water, mud puddles, snow, inside other organisms, etc.

6 What Are Protists?  Eukaryotic or Prokaryotic? Eukaryotic

7  Unicellular or Multicellular? Unicellular dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima

8  Heterotrophic or Autotrophic? Both Collodictyon

9 How Are Protists Classified? Protists are classified based on their nutrition.

10 There are three types of protists. a. Animal-like Ex. Amoeba, euglena, paramecium

11 b. Plant-like Ex. Algae, seaweed, kelp

12 c. Fungus-like Ex. Molds

13 Animal-like Protists  Called Protozoans  Protozoans are unicellular and heterotrophic.

14  Protozoans are classified by their mode of motility. This means “How they move.”

15 Three Types of Motility Pseudopods – are lobes of cytoplasm that move to surround and engulf food. They look like blobs. Example: Amoeba

16 Flagella – are whip-like tails that propel the protozoa through the water. Example: Euglena

17 Cilia – short, hairlike projections on the outside of the protozoan’s body. Example: Paramecium

18 Plant-like Protists Autotrophic protists that get their nutrition through photosynthesis. These protists are called algae.

19 There are 4 kinds of unicellular algae: Euglenophytes, Chrysophytes, Diatoms and Dinoflagellates

20 Euglenophytes

21 Chrysophytes Yellow-green algae, "golden plants"

22 Diatoms produce thin cell walls of silicon, main component of glass

23 Dinoflagellates Often have two flagella luminescent

24 There are 3 kinds of multicellular algae: green, red and brown algae

25 Green Algae Blue green algae

26 Red Algae

27 Brown Algae Sargassam Padina durvillaei Alginic Acid, harvested from brown algae, is used to make products such as toothpaste, soap and ice cream.

28 Fungus-like Protists These protists break down dead organic matter just like fungi. These protists are considered decomposers.

29 Example: Molds There are two types of molds: slime molds & water molds.

30 How Do Protists Affect Us?  Phytoplankton, which are a form of algae, provide and maintain the earth’s oxygen levels through photosynthesis (supply almost ½ of the world’s oxygen)

31  Protists can also cause diseases in plants & animals. Ex are: malaria, amoebic dysentery, and the potato famine.

32  Many protists are used in foods such as ice cream, pudding, pancake syrups and sushi.

33 Red Tides Some dinoflagellates produce “red tides” – when algae grow into enormous masses known as blooms

34 Red Tide

35 The algal blooms rob the water of oxygen and can cause fish and other sea life to die

36 The algal blooms can also put a toxin into shellfish (clams & oysters) that eat them and that toxin can be spread to humans and cause serious illness and even death

37 Photo sites moeba_proteus_X_100_small.jpg

38 Photo sites

39 Kingdom Fungi

40 What Are And Where Do Fungi Live?

41 Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic? Eukaryotic

42 Unicellular or Multicellular? Multicellular

43 Heterotrophic or Autotrophic? Heterotrophic Agaricus A. campetris

44  Fungi grow in dark and moist places and feed on dead organic matter.

45 How Are Fungi Classified?  Fungi are classified by their method of reproduction.

46 1. Asexual reproduction – involves only one parent and does not involve the exchange of genetic information.

47 2. Sexual reproduction – involves exchange of genetic information between two individuals.

48 Three Forms of Asexual Reproduction  Budding – a parent cell produces offspring by forming a small bud which then separates from the parent to form a new organism.

49 Yeast cells are an example of budding. Yeast cells are unique among fungi because they are unicellular. BUD YEAST CELL

50 .  Regeneration – a piece of fungus breaks off and forms a new fungus.

51  Spores – reproductive cells that form new fungi

52 Groups of Fungi Common Molds – includes molds that grow on meat, cheese & bread

53 Sac Fungi – includes cup fungi, but also yeast (unicellular) Mildew

54 Club Fungi – includes typical mushrooms that you buy from the store

55 Imperfect Fungi – includes Penicillium (makes Penicillin), athlete’s foot & ringworm

56 Structure of a Typical Mushroom Label: Cap, Annulus, Stipe, Gills & Hyphae CAP GILLS STIPE (STALK) ANNULUS HYPHAE

57 Fungi in the Biosphere  Lichens –are a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism like algae.

58 Lichens  In this relationship, the algae provides food for the fungus and the fungus provides shelter for the algae.  What kind of symbiotic relationship is this? MUTUALISM

59 How Do Fungi Affect Us? Fungi are used in food. These include mushrooms, bread yeast to make bread, and some cheeses gain their flavor from the mold that grows on them.

60 Fungi are decomposers and help maintain equilibrium in ecosystems.

61 Diseases caused by fungi are athlete’s foot, ringworm, and thrush.

62 Fungi in Medicine  Penicillin was found by accident by Alexander Fleming. This led to the discovery of antibiotics.

63  Many fungi form antibiotics and have been very beneficial in the treatment against bacterial diseases.

64 Never eat mushrooms that you didn’t buy at the grocery store. Many mushrooms look like the edible kind but are poisonous.

65 Fungus photo sites

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