Behavior Management (Diane Gossen, 1993) Monitor –Rewards to offset negative, teacher imposes consequences, behave only when monitored Manager –Children learn self-control, teacher guides toward expectations
Types of Misbehaviors Moral –Lying, cheating Personal –Physical or emotional hurt toward another Legal –Breaking rules or laws Safety –Risk of physical injury Educational –Affects the learning environment
Causes of Misbehavior Frustration Conflict Rules
Behavioral Model Determine the behavior to change Introduce reinforcer Monitor behavior Behavior modification--Skinner
Psychodynamic Model Soothe child, encourage exploration of feelings Privately discuss incident determine causes and issues Guide student to acceptance of responsibility Student and teacher develop solution Guide through reflection--Ginott
Environmental Model Analyze the environment (time, space) Quality of human interaction within environment Adapt the environment Home, School, Neighborhood
Constructive Model Remind of procedures and expectations Discuss concerns and problems Guided toward responsibility for their actions Piagetconstruction of knowledge base is individual
IOSIE Method Identify the problem Determine the Objectives you want Propose a Solution Implement the solution Evaluate the results
Implementation and Evaluation Who will implement the objective? Can one gain cooperation and support of everyone involved? How long before results? What happens if the objective doesnt work? EVALUATE the Results
Emotional Support Make learning relevant Foster positive peer relationships Teach behavior-management skills Supportive environment Help students cope with stress Instill Hope Bring in the psychologist
Successful Teachers Approachable –Available, listener, personal interest Patient –Empathize with struggle to learn and grow up Truthful –consistent Warm –Supportive, trust Loving –Student feels loved, loves the teacher
Research Says… Best Teachers Sense of humor Interesting lessons Know subject Clear explanations Helpful Worst Teachers Dull, boring lessons Little to no explanation Class pets (student kind) Poor attitude Expect more than possible
Techniques Scanning the Room –Practice looking around Critical for small group work Positive reinforcement for those on task –Students appreciate recognition –Students know youre watching Circulating around the Room –Same as abovejust walking instead of standing
Consistent Praise Make it Personal Make it Genuine Make it Specific and Descriptive Johnny, thank you for lining up for recess. Way to go, Johnny! Specific to more than one student Sarah is in line; I see Johnny is in line too.
Proximity Control Students are motivatednon verbally to get back on task Students who are on task receive praise Teachers whisper voice Keeps teacher moving about the room
The Teacher LOOK Long, direct, calm stare –Practice this in the mirror When behavior stops, teacher stops staring Combined with Proximity control for maximum affect
Student Names Learn student names as soon as possible –Easier to redirect Johnny than boy in the red shirt During instruction mention students name during lesson or directions – As we do the next problem, Johnny, be sure to line up your decimals.
Moving-In Advanced Technique –Continuous disruptions from student Teacher gets close to student, makes eye contact and quietly lets student know the consequences of their actions –Johnny, you have already lost your recess because of talking. You will work quietly on this assignment. If you dont, we will call mom at work.
Refocusing Argument NEVER ARGUE with a STUDENT –Chris, sit down and do your math. –I dont want to do my math. Youre not fair. –I understand Chris, but you will sit down and finish your work. –Youre picking on me! –I understand Chris, but you will sit down and finish your work. repeat as needed –Okay, but youre still picking on me.
Management by Walking Around Once through the roomno stopping-quick Praise on-task behavior, walk around again –Unpredictable path Check for mistakes, off-task, concerns Praise on-task behavior, walk around again Checksame questions? Pull a mini-group for reteaching or reteach the whole class Record anecdotal notes/progress
Instructional Practices Focus on Learning Focused Instructionstudent engagement Effective Questioning Techniques Feedback and reinforcement Review/reteach as needed