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Presentation on theme: "OHIO’S NATURAL HABITATS"— Presentation transcript:

INVASIVE PLANTS IN OHIO’S NATURAL HABITATS This is an introductory slide: introduce yourself as the speaker, your interest and background in invasive plants. Add your name, logo, and contact info in the space provided. This presentation was developed by the Education Work Group of the Ohio Invasive Plants Council, specifically by two members (Division of Wildlife, Hamilton County Park District). Feel free to use this presentation as you like, but please credit its origin.

2 Salt cedar Eurasian water-milfoil Kudzu Salvinia Leafy spurge
This slide is used to explain the national problem of invasive plants. Salt cedar, leafy spurge, and salvinia do not occur in Ohio yet, but are major problems in other parts of the US. Mention that CA, FL, and Hawaii have major invasive plant problems, worse than Ohio. Leafy spurge Purple loosestrife

3 INVASIVE PLANTS ?? ► what are invasive plants, where
did they come from & why ► what do invasive plants impact ► what plant species are invasive in Ohio ► what controls can be used ► what alternative species can be used ► what new invasive plants are coming into Ohio ► what makes this worth the effort This is meant to be an outline of the presentation. What are invasive plants and what questions are addressed in this presentation?

4 INVASIVE PLANTS: What, where from, & why
Non-native, non-invasive Non-native, invasive Dandelions may be invasive in lawns, but not in natural habitats. Explain the difference between native and non-native plants, invasive and non-invasive plants. Native = known to occur in Ohio prior to substantial European settlement, around 1750, according to the botanical literature. Non-native = not known to occur in Ohio prior to 1750 according to the botanical literature Invasive = species which threaten natural habitats or natural areas in Ohio Non-invasive = may be non-native, may be invasive in lawns and other disturbed, un-natural habitats, but are not invasive in natural habitats in Ohio (e.g., woodlands, grasslands and prairies, savannas, wetlands)

5 Native plant diversity
● 3,000 plant species in Ohio ● 25% are non-native (750) ● < 100 species are invasive in natural habitats (3%) Why do they become invasive? → they reproduce quickly → they have no natural controls Explain how we are focusing on a small percentage of non-native plants in Ohio – less than 100 species or 3% of the total number of plants known in Ohio. Explain how invasive species differ from other non-native species – they reproduce quickly and efficiently and have no natural controls. Native plant diversity in Ohio’s wetlands and prairies

6 These plants were introduced to Ohio purposefully,
as well as by accident, from Europe and Asia: ● For agriculture, landscaping, gardening, soil stabilization, forage, medicine, herbal & culinary uses, and wildlife habitat ● Came in via solid ballast of ships ● As contaminants in imported materials Garlic mustard Hungarian brome Explain how most invasive plants were introduced with good intentions – purple loosestrife and bush honeysuckles for horticulture, Hungarian brome for erosion control and as a forage crop, garlic mustard for herbal and medicinal purposes. Tatarian honeysuckle Purple loosestrife

7 Many Invasive Plants Were Introduced For Landscaping Purposes
A few examples -  Glossy buckthorn  Bush honeysuckles (3)  Japanese honeysuckle  Purple loosestrife  Japanese barberry  Periwinkle or myrtle  Common privet  Winged euonymus (burning-bush)  Winter-creeper  Chinese silvergrass (Miscanthus) Explain that a large number of species have been introduced for landscaping purposes, although we had no idea how invasive in natural habitats they might become. Just a few examples are listed. Similar lists of species could be made for those that were introduced for agricultural, culinary, and medicinal purposes, so this is just one sample, not necessarily the worst.

8 INVASIVE PLANTS: What do they impact
● they displace native plants & animals in all habitats ● they displace rare species ● they reduce species diversity ● they form dense monocultures ● they alter the food web ● they affect human recreation ● they impact economics, resources, & time EXAMPLE: “American toads suffer as much as a 50% increase in mortality when tadpoles develop in purple loosestrife versus cattail wetlands.” (Blossey, Cornell University)

9 Invasive plants impact
Woodlands Lakes, ponds, streams Grasslands Invasive plants impact all habitats in Ohio Wetlands

10 Invasive plants are the biggest threat to rare plants in the U.S.
(TNC report) Small white lady’s-slipper Invasive plants can impact rare plants severely due to the fragmented and limited sites they occur in. Small white lady’s-slippers are state endangered in Ohio and threatened by invasive species in prairie habitats. Eastern prairie fringed orchid is state and Federal threatened; the habitat is threatened by several wetland invasive plants. There are good examples of invasive plants impacting rare animals now as well – the Karner blue butterfly and lark sparrow are Ohio examples in the Oak Openings of northwest Ohio. Eastern & Western prairie fringed orchids Rare animal examples: Least bell’s vireo, Sage grouse, Bald eagle, Karner blue butterfly, Lark sparrow

11 Wild lupine, Persius dusky wing,
Examples of the rare species of the Oak Openings and how their habitat, oak savanna, may be impacted by invasive plants. Wild lupine, Persius dusky wing, Karner blue butterfly, Golden-winged warbler, Lark sparrow, Blue-spotted salamander, Frosted elfin

12 Invasive plants reduce wildlife diversity

13 Invasive plants cost natural resource and recreation agencies, farmers, industry, and homeowners millions of dollars every year. Loss of recreation opportunities or quality of recreation such as: hunting fishing boating hiking wildlife observation.

14 INVASIVE PLANTS: The species in Ohio
TREES This section begins examples of the most invasive plants in Ohio by plant category. Feel free to discuss what you know about these species and their impacts on natural habitats. Tree-of-heaven impacts woodlands, primarily in SE Ohio at present. Tree-of-heaven

15 Bush-honeysuckles: Amur,
SHRUBS Glossy buckthorn Autumn & Russian olive These shrubs are all very abundant invasive species in Ohio: autumn-olive & multiflora rose impacting grasslands and prairies, bush honeysuckles impacting woodlands, and glossy buckthorn impacting wetlands. Bush-honeysuckles: Amur, Morrow, & Tatarian Multiflora rose

16 VINES Japanese honeysuckle Oriental bittersweet Wintercreeper

17 WILDFLOWERS/FORBS Narrow-leaved cattail (on left) Purple loosestrife
Common teasel Garlic mustard

18 Canada thistle Japanese knotweed or Mexican bamboo White and yellow sweet-clover

19 GRASSES Phragmites or Giant reed grass Reed canary grass
These are both abundant wetland invasive plants, particularly a problem in the Lake Erie marshes. Phragmites or Giant reed grass Reed canary grass

20 AQUATICS Lesser naiad Curly pondweed Eurasian water-milfoil
These are the most common aquatic invasive plants; Eurasian water-milfoil is the most problematic causing loss of diversity in native aquatic plants, as well as impacts to boating, fishing, swimming, and other water recreational activities. Eurasian water-milfoil

21 INVASIVE PLANTS: Control Options
MANUAL (hand-pulling or cutting, mowing, discing, plowing, soil disturbance) HERBICIDE APPLICATION (cut stump, foliar, basal bark, aerial)  WATER LEVEL CONTROL  PRESCRIBED BURNING  BIOLOGICAL CONTROL This section is designed to give the audience an introduction to control techniques. Emphasize that using a combination of techniques is usually the most effective. Some techniques – water level control, burning, and biocontrol – may not be options for the average landowner, but are important tools for land-managing agencies and organizations in Ohio.

22 Manual methods Hand-cutting Hand-pulling; digging Discing cattails
Bulldozing Phragmites and discing cattails were not effective controls, but we often have to experiment with control techniques. Manual techniques such as hand-cutting and pulling/digging are very time-consuming and have mixed results depending on the species and extent. Bulldozing; soil disturbance

23 Herbicide application
High volume spraying Basal bark application Herbicide application, while very effective, can be expensive and is not often preferred by private landowners. Regardless, it is the most effective method for controlling invasive plants, especially large populations. There are many techniques and herbicides; one should become well-informed before using them. These are 4 techniques often used by land-managing agencies and organizations. High volume by ATV Low volume by backpack

24 Spraying herbicide by helicopter at Killbuck Marsh Wildlife Area
Aerial application of herbicides is not available to many, but can be very effective for large populations of invasive plants. The Division of Wildlife uses this technique for purple loosestrife and Phragmites in Lake Erie marshes (even on spadderdock, which is native and invasive, at Killbuck Marsh WA). Spraying herbicide by helicopter at Killbuck Marsh Wildlife Area

25 Bush honeysuckle control in HCPD
Costs of Herbicide Control Methods Bush honeysuckle control in HCPD Hamilton County Park District compared the costs of 3 different control methods for bush honeysuckle – note that foliar application (contracted) was the least expensive, although probably the least selective. Choose your control methods carefully.

26 Water level controls at Big Island Wildlife Area
Water level control may be effective for wetland invasive plants such as Phragmites, cattails, and reed canary grass, but is not an option for all wetland managers. Water level controls at Big Island Wildlife Area

27 Prescribed burning Ohio now has a Certified Prescribed Fire Manager
Program to encourage the responsible use of prescribed burning Prescribed burning is an important tool for land-managing agencies and organizations; it is being used more and more on private lands in Ohio (e.g., CRP lands). Experience and training is necessary to use this tool; burn managers must be certified by the ODNR Division of Forestry. Permits and waivers must be obtained from OEPA and the Division of Forestry.

28 What you do as a burn manager may impact all burn managers in Ohio.
Take every burn seriously, plan carefully, and be a responsible burn manager.

29 Biological control: Using the species’ natural controls
Purple loosestrife Purple loosestrife has more than 200 insects in Europe that feed on it, controlling its populations such that they do not have problems with the species being invasive. Using the natural controls of a plant is called biological control. Research must be conducted for at least 10 years before introduction may be approved by the US Department of Agriculture. Cornell University in NY has led the research on this control technique. Biological control: Using the species’ natural controls

30 Collecting, rearing, and releasing Galerucella
beetles in Ohio wetlands: 1,435,000 beetles have been released at 30 sites during by the Division of Wildlife The Division of Wildlife began the purple loosestrife biological control program in Ohio in 1994 in cooperation with Cornell University and OSU. In wetlands where the beetles have been introduced for more than 5 years, they are controlling purple loosestrife well. The Division is willing to provide beetles to landowners with more than 5 acres of purple loosestrife.

31 INVASIVE SPECIES: Alternative Species
NON-NATIVE SPECIES NATIVE SPECIES Bush honeysuckles (3) Serviceberry, Chokeberry, Hawthorn, Witch-hazel Purple loosestrife Spiked blazing-star, Blue vervain, Joe-pye-weed, Obedient plant Phragmites, Bluejoint grass, Indian grass, Reed canary grass Prairie cord grass Wintercreeper, Trumpet honeysuckle, Oriental bittersweet, Virginia creeper, Virgin’s bower Japanese honeysuckle Japanese barberry, Viburnum sp., Dogwood, Burning bush, Privet Inkberry, Highbush blueberry Mention that there are many good alternative species for invasive plants – refer to the handout developed by DNAP.

32 OR Purple loosestrife… Spiked blazing-star
Remind the audience that they have a choice – there are many good native alternatives! Spiked blazing-star

33 Just a few examples… see the handout
NEW INVASIVE PLANTS COMING INTO OHIO: The Watch List Just a few examples… see the handout Leafy spurge Chinese silvergrass, Miscanthus sinensis Kudzu, Pueraria lobata Mile-a-minute vine, Polygonum perfoliatum Japanese stilt-grass, Microstegium vimineum Spotted knapweed, Centaurea maculosa Leafy spurge, Euphorbia esula Nodding thistle, Carduus nutans Porcelain-berry, Ampleopsis brevipedunculata

Some nasty invasives – kudzu, purple loosestrife, lesser celandine, garlic mustard, and Phragmites – all present in Ohio. Is this the type of vegetative landscape we want for the future? Do we want solid stands of kudzu, purple loosestrife, garlic mustard, Phragmites, and lesser celandine to replace our native diverse vegetation?

35 Do we want to maintain, conserve, and restore our native vegetation
for future generations? If we want to maintain diversity for future generations, we have to address invasive plants – prioritize the high-quality natural habitats and pick the battles we can win as we cannot eliminate invasive plants.

36 Dense bush honeysuckle
A RESTORATION EXAMPLE The next 4 slides refer to a restoration example of work conducted by the Hamilton County Park District to control Amur honeysuckle in a woodland and restore the native wildflowers. Dense bush honeysuckle in a woodland at a Hamilton County Park

37 Removal of Amur honeysuckle: chain saw and stump treatment

38 The spring after honeysuckle removal

39 Benefits of the Honeysuckle Removal Project:
A few examples from the park district ► Increased plant diversity in the woods ► Increased growth of mature trees ► Promotes plant diversity which provides habitat for more wildlife species ► Increases safety and aesthetic appeal by opening up views ► Provides a higher quality experience for hikers, bikers, birdwatchers, golfers, boaters, anglers, and other park visitors

Rate of invasion in natural habitats Effectiveness of control techniques Stress the importance of monitoring: monitoring the extent of invasive plants and monitoring the effectiveness of control techniques.

41 Education: Public programs, publications, signs, media, schools, OIPC.

Formed in February 2005 Replaced the Ohio Invasive Plant Working Group of Mission: The Ohio Invasive Plants Council participates in statewide efforts to address the threats of invasive species to Ohio’s ecosystems and economy by providing leadership and promoting stewardship, education, research, and information exchange.

43 Purposes of The Ohio Invasive Plants Council:
Raise public awareness Facilitate exchange of information Provide forums to discuss issues related to invasive species Serve as an educational, advisory, & technical support Coordinate activities & information exchange Develop & maintain a list of invasive plant species Develop & maintain a list of non-invasive, alternatives Promote actions to prevent future introductions Carry on additional activities related to furthering the above purposes.

44 WHAT YOU CAN DO TO HELP  Spread the word about invasive species
 Volunteer to help control invasives  Plant native, non-invasive plants  Be on the lookout for new populations  Be careful not to transport invasive species  Discourage the use of invasive plants Get involved in the Ohio Invasive Plants Council (2005)


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