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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Admin: No discussion sections this week. Register for MasteringPhysics www.masteringphysics.com Course ID: MPHOLDER67874 First (ungraded) assignment is posted. Due Monday All lectures, and lab scripts, posted here: http://www.physics.udel.edu/~jholder/Phys245/PHYS245.html

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Electric current is the rate of flow of charge through a conductor: Unit of electric current: the ampere, A: 1 A = 1 C/s. Electric Current (Ch 25) The instantaneous current is given by: Smallest unit of charge is the charge on the electron = -1.6×10 -19 Coulomb

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. A complete circuit is one where current can flow all the way around. Note that the schematic drawing doesn’t look much like the physical circuit! Electric Current

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Electric Current Example: Current is flow of charge. A steady current of 2.5 A exists in a wire for 4.0 min. (a) How much total charge passed by a given point in the circuit during those 4.0 min? (b) How many electrons would this be? charge on the electron = -1.6×10 -19 Coulomb

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. By convention, current is defined as flowing from + to -. Electrons actually move in the opposite direction, (but not all currents consist of electrons). Electric Current

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Voltage! An analogy: Electric field Gravitational field Electric potential energy Gravitational potential energy Electric charge Mass of the object Voltage is the electric potential energy per unit charge 1 Volt= 1 Joule/ Coulomb The voltage is equal to the work which would have to be done, per unit charge, against the electric field to move the charge from point A to point B. Note that voltage is not absolute: it always corresponds to the potential difference between two points What makes the electrons move?

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Experimentally, it is found that the current in a wire is proportional to the potential difference between its ends: Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Resistors The ratio of voltage to current is called the resistance:

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. In many conductors, the resistance is independent of the voltage; this relationship is called Ohm’s law. Materials that do not follow Ohm’s law are called nonohmic. Unit of resistance: the ohm, Ω: 1 Ω = 1 V / A. Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Resistors

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Example : Current and potential. Current I enters a resistor R as shown. (a)Is the potential higher at point A or at point B ?

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Example : Current and potential. Current I enters a resistor R as shown. (a)Is the potential higher at point A or at point B ? (b) Is the current greater at point A or at point B ?

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Example: Flashlight bulb resistance. A small flashlight bulb draws 300 mA from its 1.5-V battery. (a) What is the resistance of the bulb? (b) If the battery becomes weak and the voltage drops to 1.2 V, how would the current change?

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Standard resistors are manufactured for use in electric circuits; they are color-coded to indicate their value and precision. Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Resistors

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Resistor Color code http://www.dannyg.com/examples/res2/resistor.htm

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Some clarifications: Batteries maintain a (nearly) constant potential difference; the current varies. Resistance is a property of a material or device. Current has a direction. Current and charge do not get used up. Whatever charge goes in one end of a circuit comes out the other end. Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Resistors

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. The resistance of a wire is directly proportional to its length and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area: The constant ρ, the resistivity, is characteristic of the material. Resistivity

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Resistivity This table gives the resistivity and temperature coefficients of typical conductors, semiconductors, and insulators.

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Resistivity Example: Speaker wires. Suppose you want to connect your stereo to remote speakers. (a)If each wire must be 20 m long, what diameter copper wire should you use to keep the resistance less than 0.10 Ω per wire? (b) If the current to each speaker is 4.0 A, what is the potential difference, or voltage drop, across each wire?

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Resistivity Suppose a wire of resistance R could be stretched uniformly until it was twice its original length. What would happen to its resistance?

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