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9-1© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. International Strategy Chapter Nine
9-2© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. International Corporate-Level Strategy Multi-domestic Strategy –Strategic & operating decisions are decentralized to the strategic business unit in each country to tailor products to the local market. Global Strategy –Assumes more standardization of products across country markets Transnational Strategy –The firm seeks to achieve both global efficiency and local responsiveness
9-3© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Exporting Choice of International Entry Mode No need to establish operations in other nations. Establish distribution channels through contractual relationships. May have high transportation costs. May encounter high import tariffs. May have less control on marketing and distribution. Difficult to customize product. Common way to enter new international markets.
9-4© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Licensing Choice of International Entry Mode Licensing firm is paid a royalty on each unit produced and sold. Licensee takes risks in manufacturing investments. Licensing firm loses control over product quality & distribution. Relatively low profit potential. Firm authorizes another firm to manufacture & sell its products -
9-5© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Choice of International Entry Mode Strategic Alliances Most joint ventures (JVs) involve a foreign corp. with a new product or technology & a host company with access to distribution or knowledge of local customs, norms or politics. May experience difficulties in merging disparate cultures. May not understand the strategic intent of partners or experience divergent goals. Enable firms to shares risks and resources to expand into international ventures.
9-6© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Choice of International Entry Mode Can be very costly. Legal and regulatory requirements may present barriers to foreign ownership. Usually require complex and costly negotiations. Potentially disparate corporate culture. Enable firms to make most rapid international expansion. Acquisitions
9-7© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Greenfield Venture Choice of International Entry Mode New Wholly-Owned Subsidiary – Most costly & complex of entry alternatives. Achieves greatest degree of control. Potentially most profitable, if successful. Maintain control over technology, marketing and distribution. May need to acquire expertise & knowledge that is relevant to host country. Could require hiring host country nationals or consultants at high cost.
9-8© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. National government instability may create potential problems for internationally diversified firms. Legal authority obtained from previous administration may become invalid. Potential changes in attitudes or regulations regarding foreign ownership. Potential for nationalization of firms’ assets. Major Risks of International Diversification Political Risk
9-9© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Econ. risks are interdependent with political risks. Differences in inflation rates may affect inter- nationally diversified firms’ ability to compete. Differences and fluctuations in international currencies may affect value of assets & liabilities. This affects prices & thus ability to compete. Enforcing intellectual property rights on CDs, software, etc. Major Risks of International Diversification Economic Risk
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LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of this chapter, the reader should be able to: Explain the three basic decisions before entering a foreign market Explain.
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9-1© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. International Strategy Chapter Nine.
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.8–1 Figure 1.1 Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved. The Strategic Management Process.
©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Opportunities and Outcomes of International Strategy
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