Human Rights. Human Rights Norms Ancient philosophers Enlightenment and rise of liberal ideals Human rights as universal norms The implementation.
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Human Rights Norms Ancient philosophers Enlightenment and rise of liberal ideals Human rights as universal norms The implementation of human rights norms
Universal Declaration on Human Rights (1948) Equal, universal rights Right to life, liberty and security Protection against torture, arbitrary arrest, detention or exile Right to property and freedom of movement Freedom of religion, expression, peaceful assembly and association Right to rest and leisure!
International Human Rights Laws International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights (1966) International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (1966) The Helsinki Accords (1975) –"The participating States will respect human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief, for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion. The European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1950) The International Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (1979)
Human Rights Agencies Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) –Commissioner Louise Arbour –Reforms of the Commission European Commission of Human Rights and European Court of Human Rights International Criminal Court (ICC) –Different from the International Court of Justice
Non-Governmental Organizations Amnesty International Helsinki Watch-> Human Rights Watch Helsinki Committees for Human Rights Local organizations "...if there's lots of pressure – like from Amnesty International or some foreign countries – we might pass them on to a judge. But if there's no pressure, then they're dead." Former torturer, El Salvador http://web.amnesty.org/
The Role of NGOs Diffusion of norms –Transnational advocacy networks Pressure: the boomerang effect –Amnesty in Argentina Norms and markets –Sullivan Principles 1971 Norms and courts –Lawsuit against Royal Dutch/Shell
Cases: Argentina –Military regime 1970s –Abduction and “disappearance” of political opponents –Amnesty investigation –US and UN pressure –Military curbs human rights atrocities –1985 - democratization
Cases: Nigeria -Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People, led by Ken Saro-Wiwa –1995: Saro-Wiwa and 8 others hanged by the Nigerian government –1997: Law suite against Royal Dutch/Shell in NY district court by CENTER FOR CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS –Charges: EXECUTION; CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY; TORTURE; CRUEL, INHUMAN OR DEGRADING TREATMENT; ARBITRARY ARREST; VIOLATION OF THE RIGHTS TO LIFE, LIBERTY AND SECURITY OF PERSON AND PEACEFUL ASSEMBLY AND ASSOCIATION; WRONGFUL DEATH; ASSAULT AND BATTERY; INTENTIONAL INFLICTION OF EMOTIONAL DISTRESS; NEGLIGENT INFLICTION OF EMOTIONAL DISTRESS; NEGLIGENCE; AND VIOLATIONS OF THE RACKETEER INFLUENCED AND CORRUPT ORGANIZATIONS ACT
Universal Cultural Imperialism? “Asia’s different standard” Foreign Policy, 1993 By Bilahari Kausikan, MOFA, Singapore; “The West needs its myth; missionary zeal to whip the heathen along the path of righteousness and remake the world in its own image I deeply ingrained in Western (especially American) political culture.”(5) “Asia’s unacceptable standard” Foreign Policy 1993 –By Aryeh Neier, former Executive Director of Human Rights Watch
The Role of Institutions in Promoting the Rights of Women