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Thinking, Language and Intelligence. Cognition Mental Activities Acquiring, retaining and using knowledge THINKING!

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Presentation on theme: "Thinking, Language and Intelligence. Cognition Mental Activities Acquiring, retaining and using knowledge THINKING!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Thinking, Language and Intelligence

2 Cognition Mental Activities Acquiring, retaining and using knowledge THINKING!

3 Language System for combining symbols to produce infinite number of meaningful statements

4 Intelligence Global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment

5 Measuring Intelligence Alfred Binet Mental age Chronological age IQ—comparison of people in similar age groups

6 Alfred Binet (1857–1911) –Intelligence—collection of mental abilities loosely related to one another –Did not rank “normal” students according to the scores –Intelligence is nurtured –Binet-Simon Test developed in France, 1905

7 Modern Intelligence Tests The Stanford-Binet Scale –modification of the original Binet-Simon, by Lewis Terman at Stanford university –intelligence quotient (IQ)—child’s mental age divided by child’s chronological age

8 Group Intelligence Testing Began during WWI when the army had to screen millions of army recruits Army Alpha--given to people who could read Army Beta--given to people who could not read Adapted for civilian use, but widely misused

9 1921 Terman Study 1500 California children with IQs above 100 studied in longitudinal study How would this genius level IQ affect the course of their lives? Results- socially well adjusted, taller, stronger, fewer illnesses and accidents As adults- higher incomes, 2/3 college grads many became successful professionals

10 Wechsler Intelligence Tests WAIS Designed for Adults Used more widely now than Stanford-Binet Modeled after Binet’s, adult test called WAIS Consisted of several subtests Reflected belief that intelligence involves different strengths and weaknesses

11 WAIS Scales Test measured several abilities Performance scales--nonverbal abilities Verbal scales--vocabulary, comprehension, and other verbal tasks Sub-scales gave the WAIS practical and clinical value

12 Types of Tests Achievement test—designed to measure level of knowledge, skill, or accomplishment in a particular area Aptitude test—designed to measure capability to benefit from education or training Interest test—measures self-reported vocational interests and skills

13 Qualities of Good Tests Standardized—administered to large groups of people under uniform conditions to establish norms Reliable—ability to produce consistent results when administered on repeated occasions under similar conditions Valid—ability to measure what the test is intended to measure

14 Standardized Scoring of Wechsler Tests All raw scores converted to standardized scores Normal distribution Mean of 100 Standard deviation of 15 50 70 85 100 115 130 145 2.14% 13.59%34.13% 13.59%2.14% 0.13% 95.44% 68.26% Wechsler IQ score Number of score

15 How valid are IQ tests? Validity—test measures what it’s intended to measure Does test correlate with other measures of same construct? School achievement –IQ tests (i.e., S-B and the Wechsler) correlate highly –but they were designed to test what you learn in school On-the-job performance & other work-related variables

16 What do IQ tests measure about your mind? Mental speed and span of working memory –typically use a digit span test to measure this –more recent studies find significant correlations between reaction times and IQ scores Why is this important? –mental quickness may expand capacity of working memory

17 Theories of Intelligence Charles Spearman—“g” factor Louis Thurstone—intelligence as a person’s “pattern” of mental abilities Howard Gardner—multiple intelligences Sternberg–triarchic theory

18 Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences

19 Nature vs. Nurture in IQ Are differences between people due to environmental or genetic differences? Misunderstanding the question –“Is a person’s intelligence due more to genes or to environment?” –both genes & intelligence crucial for any trait

20 Heredity and Environment Heritability –degree to which variation in trait stems from genetic, rather than environmental, differences among individuals Environment –degree to which variation is due to environmental rather than genetic differences

21 Twin Studies & Family Influence If trait genetic: –closely related more similar than less closely related Many close relatives share environments too Types of studies to separate effects –monozygotic twins reared together –monozygotic twins reared apart –siblings/dizygotic reared together –siblings/dizygotic reared apart –adoptive siblings reared together

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