5 Greenleaf (1977) proposed that servant leaders are leaders who put other people’s needs, aspirations and interests above their own. The servant leader’s deliberate choice is to serve others. This idea is similar to Burns (1978) transformational leadership, and to Path-Goal theory in which the leader enables employees.Servant Leadership is characterized in organizations by openness and fairness, camaraderie/friendliness, opportunities, pride in work and company, pay/benefits, and security.Robert K. GreenleafLevering and Moskowitz (2000) contend that servant leadership has been practiced and advocated in some of the best companies to work for in America, on the basis of the Fortune survey. The latest Fortune 2001 annual survey the top employers ranked Southwest Airlines, TDIndustries, and Synovus Financial numbers four, six, and eight respectively
6 Servant Leadership: The Values-Based Organization Listening intently to clarify the will of the group, as well as to one’s own “inner voice” and seeking to discover what one’s body, mind, & spirit are communicatingEmpathize with and understand others, assuming their good intentions, even when behaviors must be rejectedHealing as a force for transformation & integration using the subtle communication of valuing the wholeAwareness with courage for what you findPersuasion rather than positional authority to build consensus and make decisionsConceptualization or vision must be balanced with daily realitiesForesight requires learning lessons from the past, realities of the present, and consequences in the future using intuitionStewardship in which all stakeholders hold as their goal the greatest good for the larger societyCommitment to the personal, professional, and spiritual growth of peopleCommunity-building within the organization to replace what has been lost socially
11 Booz Allen Hamilton/ Aspen Institute Survey of Corporate Values In 2004 a survey of senior executives of 365 global corporations in 30 countries was conducted.They were asked about how companies defined corporate values, how values were related to corporate performance, and best practices for managing values
12 Primary findings:Ethical behavior is a core component of company activitiesMost people believe values affect key strategic areas: relationships & reputation, but most do not see direct relationship to growthMost companies do not measure their ROV (return on values); <50% have measures linking values & earningsTop performers consciously connect values and operations (e.g., commitment to employees, drive to succeed, adaptability)Values practices vary significantly by region (social & environmental responsibility)CEO’s tone really matters
13 All companies have high sounding missions– there is almost no relation between words and actions Spending $ on correct wording does not make a differenceLeaders need to receive and get feedback from employees; learn from employees whether they are using the correct coachingActions express values, words don’t!
18 Critique of Servant Leadership ProsIt is increasingly popular given the growth of Christian orientation in modern lifeThere is anecdotal evidence of its successful application in prominent organizationsIt is intuitively desirable in contrast to the media highlights on scandals, illegal, and unethical behaviorIt emphasizes the role of values at a time when post-modernism threatens our sense of integrityIts emphasis on leaders serving others contrasts with the resentment of and bad press on hierarchical authoritiesConsThe concepts are vague and difficult to define operationallyThere are no sound measures of servant leadershipThe Christian orientation may offend others in our religiously diverse populationIts popularity far exceeds the evidence for its effectivenessIt is unclear how such a culture competes in a highly competitive marketplaceAre the characteristics of servant leadership sufficient to account for leadership?How does the role of leaders being rebels fit with S-L?