CS370 Counters. Overview °Counter: A register that goes through a prescribed series of states °Counters are important components in computers. °Counters.
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Presentation on theme: "CS370 Counters. Overview °Counter: A register that goes through a prescribed series of states °Counters are important components in computers. °Counters."— Presentation transcript:
Overview °Counter: A register that goes through a prescribed series of states °Counters are important components in computers. °Counters increment or decrement by one in response to input °Two main types of counters Ripple (asynchronous) counters Synchronous counters °Ripple counters Flip flop output serves as a source for triggering other flip flops °Synchronous counters All flip flops triggered by a the same clock signal °Synchronous counters are more widely used in industry.
Counters Contd. °Ripple counters triggered by initial Count signal °Binary counter (can be Ripple or Synchronous counter) Counter that follows a binary sequence N bit binary counter counts in binary from 0 to 2 n-1 °Applications: Watches Clocks Alarms
Binary Ripple Counter °Reset signal sets all outputs to 0 °Count signal toggles output of low-order flip flop °Low-order flip flop provides trigger for adjacent flip flop °Not all flops change value simultaneously Lower-order flops change first °Focus on D flip flop implementation
Asynchronous Counters °Each FF output drives the CLK input of the next FF. °FFs do not change states in exact synchronism with the applied clock pulses. °There is delay between the responses of successive FFs. °Ripple counter due to the way the FFs respond one after another in a kind of rippling effect. A3A3 A2A2 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 A1A1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 A0A0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
Synchronous counters °Synchronous(parallel) counters All of the FFs are triggered simultaneously by the clock input pulses. All FFs change at same time °Remember If J=K=0, flop maintains value If J=K=1, flop toggles °Most counters are synchronous in computer systems. °Can also be made from D flops °Value increments on positive edge
Synchronous counters °Synchronous counters Same counter as previous slide except Count enable replaced by J=K=1 Note that clock signal is a square wave Clock fans out to all clock inputs
Circuit operation °Count value increments on each negative edge if negative edge triggered flip-flops are used. °low-order bit (A) toggles on each clock cycle
Synchronous UP/Down counters °Up/Down Counter can either count up or down on each clock cycle °Up counter counts from 0000 to 1111 and then changes back to 0000 °Down counter counts from 1111 to 0000 and then back to 1111 °Counter counts up or down each clock cycle °Output changes occur on clock rising edge
Counters with Parallel Load °Counters with parallel load can have a preset value °Load signal indicates that data (I 3 …I 0 ) should be loaded into the counter °Clear resets counter to all zeros °Carry output could be used for higher-order bits
Counters with Parallel Load Clear Clk Load Count Function 0 X X X Clear to 0 1 ↑ 1 X Load inputs 1 ↑ 0 1 Count 1 ↑ 0 0 No Change Function Table °If Clear is asserted (0), the counter is cleared °If Load is asserted data inputs are loaded °If Count asserted counter value is incremented
Binary Counter with Parallel Load and Preset Presettable parallel counter with asynchronous preset. If PL’ = 0, load P into flops
Binary Counter with Parallel Load and Preset Commercial version of binary counter
Summary °Binary counters can be ripple or synchronous °Ripple counters use flip flop outputs as triggers Some delay before all flops settle on a final value Do no require a clock signal °Synchronous counters are controlled by a clock All flip flops change at the same time °Up/Down counters can either increment or decrement a stored binary value Control signal determines if counter counts up or down °Counters with parallel load can be set to a known value before counting begins.