Reproductive System. Disorders Infertility ► Infertility in males : - pretesticular or secondary hypogonadism due to hypothalamic or pituitary lesions.
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Presentation on theme: "Reproductive System. Disorders Infertility ► Infertility in males : - pretesticular or secondary hypogonadism due to hypothalamic or pituitary lesions."— Presentation transcript:
Disorders Infertility ► Infertility in males : - pretesticular or secondary hypogonadism due to hypothalamic or pituitary lesions (testosterone levels are decreased & FSH and LH levels are decreased) - testicular or primary hypogonadism Congenital eg: Klinefelters syndrome Acquired eg: cellular damage due to chemotherapy or infection (testosterone levels are decreased & FSH and LH levels are increased) - posttesticular infertility eg: mechanical obstruction of sperm transport (Testosterone, FSH, and LH levels are normal )
► Infertility in female Due to malfunction of the hypothalamus decreased production of Gn-RH → decreased release of FSH and LH from pituitary Hypersecretion of PRL due to an adenoma of the pituitary ovarian abnormalities due to (infections, tumors, polycystic ovary disease (PCOD) → Prevent production of ova → Increased levels of FSH and LH and decreased levels of estradiol Uterine and fallopian tube abnormalities may also cause infertility (the FSH, LH and estradiol levels are normal )
Gynecomastia The development of the breast tissue in the males Due to : - primary or secondary hypogonadism → Decreased testosterone levels - Increased estrogen activity eg: estrogen- secreting tumors - Increased PRL levels due to an adenoma of the pituitary So the etiology of gynecomastia may be assessed by the measurement of testosterone, FSH, LH, and PRL
Hirsuitism Is the excessive growth of hair with a male distribution pattern in a female. Due to : Overproduction of testosterone by the ovary or the adrenal gland eg : - Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) - Polycystic ovary disease (PCOD) Amenorrhea Is the absence of vaginal bleeding due to -Pregnancy -Gonadal dysgenesis or Turners syndrome : no ovarian function and FSH & LH are elevated -Hyperprolactinemia -Thyroid dysfunction
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG): Is a protein hormone produced by the placenta and consists of alpha and beta subunits. Immunoassays detecting the beta subunit. Measurement of hCG is used for : - diagnosis of pregnancy - diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy - prediction of spontaneous abortion - detection and follow-up of hCG-producing tumors eg: neoplasms of trophoblastic or placental tissue.
Human placental lactogen (HPL): Is a protein hormone produced by the placenta Measurement is useful in monitoring conditions associated with a decrease in functioning placental tissue ( most commonly in maternal hypertension ) and in diagnosis of intrauterine growth retardation. Steroids : The fetus and placenta function together in steroid biosynthesis. The placenta synthesizes progesterone from cholesterol. Progesterone enters the fetal circulation, where it is used by the fetal adrenal for synthesis of cortisol and sex hormone precursors In placenta → Estriol (can be measured in maternal plasma and urine)