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Design and Layout Desktop Publishing Basics. Basics  Content dictates design.  The designer should have a plan for the final product.  Sketch a plan.

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Presentation on theme: "Design and Layout Desktop Publishing Basics. Basics  Content dictates design.  The designer should have a plan for the final product.  Sketch a plan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Design and Layout Desktop Publishing Basics

2 Basics  Content dictates design.  The designer should have a plan for the final product.  Sketch a plan or use a storyboard to achieve a well-designed final product.

3 Page Elements  Three Basic Elements Text (words set in type) Graphics (photos, artwork, lines) White Space (blank areas on a page)

4 6 Basic Principles of Design  Dominance  Unity  Contrast  Repetition  Balance  Consistency

5 Dominance  Every page should have one dominant element.  The dominant element should be at least two times as large as other elements on page.  The dominant element serves to bring in the reader’s eye.

6 Unity  Consistency in design, such as repeated elements. Fonts Colors  White space can unify a spread.

7 Contrast  Contrast is one of the most important elements of design.  Contrast is the use of opposites in size, shape, weight, and color or tone.  Different typefaces create contrast, but can also create a disorganized, random look. Rule – Don’t use more than two typefaces. Preferably typefaces from the same family.

8 Repetition  Involves duplicating a color, graphic, or typographic element to hold a design together.  Examples: A specific headline design could be repeated in a smaller, modified version for all captions on the spread. Color could be repeated to create unity.

9 Balance  Formal Pages that are balanced formally can be folded in half vertically with each half mirroring the other half of the page.  Informal Pages that are balanced informally feature weight distributed unevenly.  Either is fine, but have a PLAN – not a random design.

10 Selecting and Using Type  Choose a font that is easy to read. Serif fonts are sometimes difficult to read.  More novel type can be used for headlines.  Keep your target audience in mind. Ex: Children and Seniors = larger type  Using too many different typefaces in one publication creates an unorganized random appearance to the pages.

11 Selecting and Using Type  Typeface (ex: Arial or Times New Roman)  Font – A complete set of characters in one style or size of typeface, such as 12 point Gills Sans Italic  Family – Fonts closely related in style  Roman – Characters that are straight up and down

12 Selecting and Using Type  Italic – Characters slanted to the right  Point – A unit of measurement that describes the size of type  Pica – A unit of measurement in graphic design (there are 12 points in a pica and 6 picas in one inch) 6 times 12 = 72 means that there are 72 points in one inch. Example

13 Selecting and Using Type  Leading – (pronounced ledding) - The white space inserted between the lines  Kerning is the adjustment of space between pairs of letters to make them more visually appealing. It is normally applied to individual letter pairs in headlines or other large type.  Square Serif is characterized by block-type serifs. Conveys a steadfast and true feeling.  Sans Serif – the word sans means without – so a Sans Serif type has no serifs. It has a clean, smooth appearance.

14 Selecting and Using Type  Serif – Times New Roman, Century Schoolbook  Sans Serif – Arial  Scripts and Cursives resemble handwriting.  Novelty typefaces should be used with care and only to convey or reinforce a message. Storybook Game Night

15 Rules of Typography  6 point (used for indexes and photo bylines)  8 point (used for captions)  9, 10, 11, or 12 point (used for body copy) one size used consistently throughout publication  14, 18, and 24 point (used for large initial letters, headlines, and subheads)  30, 26, 42, 48, 60, and 72 point type (used for headlines and display copy in ads)

16 Pitfalls of Typography  Using all capital letters lowers readability. If you use all Capital letters, use them sparingly.  Avoid using large blocks of type in color. High contrast between the type and its background is essential for good readability.  Don’t place type in a place where it is hard to read.  Avoid placing type diagonally or vertically unless it has a distinct purpose in the overall design.

17 Broken Rules  All rules can be broken under certain circumstances.  Be sure that you have a reason or purpose for breaking the rules.

18 Evaluate  After designing a page, step back and look at it critically for design features.  Ask yourself: Is it appealing? Is it too cluttered? What catches the reader’s eye first?  Have others look at it critically as well.

19 Graphics  Graphics must have a specific reason or purpose.  Purposes of graphics – To Unify Elements To Separate Elements To Call Attention to Elements

20 Good Design – (Flyers, Newsletters)  Create a “Photo Pinwheel” Place the dominant photo and cluster the others around it.  Place the headline directly above the copy or to the side to draw the reader’s eye in.

21 Layout  Choose the best photo for the dominant position. Best quality, greatest tonal range, and contrast  Place other pictures on the page in pinwheel style.  Make sure all subjects in the photos face the center of the spread.  Avoid random use of clip art. Have a purpose.  Avoid the heavy use of borders or rules.

22 Most Common Mistakes  Use spell check.  Don’t stretch a photo.  No faces in the gutter (fold).  No boxes around captions.  Don’t put too many pictures from one event on a page unless you mean to create a collage.

23 Most Common Mistakes  Spell out numbers nine and under for both ordinal and cardinal numbers. He made nine goals. She was the seventh applicant. He made 13 points. She was the 13 th applicant.  Spell out any number that begins a sentence. Seven is considered a lucky number.  Spell out any number that precedes another number expressed in numerals. Three 100-meter races  Spell out indefinite numbers and amounts, including large approximations. Over a billion people live in India.

24 Most Common Mistakes  Commonly misspelled words There = Place Their = Ownership They’re = They Are Weather = Rain Whether = or not Go to the following website and make of list of ten other commonly misspelled words.

25 Check Everything!  Check your facts.  Check twice.  Check three times.  Follow the rules of good design.  Produce a professional looking design.

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