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Presentation on theme: "Language."— Presentation transcript:

1 Language

2 The Nature of Language Language: a collection of symbols governed by rules and used to convey messages between individuals. Language is symbolic Arbitrary constructions that represent a communicator’s thoughts.

3 Meanings are in people, not words.
User Word (Symbol) Thing (Referent)

4 Language is Rule Governed
Phonological Rules Word pronunciations Syntactic Rules Rules of syntax/grammar. Semantic Rules Give words meaning. Pragmatic Rules Govern how we use language p.75

5 The Power of Language Language Shapes Attitudes
Naming Credibility Status Sexism and Racism Language Reflects Attitudes Power Powerful vs. powerless Affiliation Convergence vs. divergence Attraction and Interest Responsibility

6 Billy Bob Booger Esq. Education: Experience:
Harvard Law School Stanford University B.S. Biophysics and Psychobiology Experience: 1995-Present Microsoft Corporation Director of Internal Affairs Franklin Covey Head Consultant and Trainer

7 Troublesome Language Misunderstandings Slang Equivocal Language
“we need to talk” Relative Words Person A:“The coffee is so strong” Person B: “Actually, it’s quite weak” Slang Used by groups of people whose members belong to a similar group. Jargon Specialized vocabulary used by people with common background and experience. Overly Abstract Language Ambiguity

8 Confusing facts and opinions
Disruptive Language Confusing facts and opinions Facts are true or false Opinions are speaker’s beliefs. Confusing facts and inferences Conclusions made based on little evidence. Emotive Language Describe the speakers opinions based on how the speaker presents the message. Evasive Language Euphemisms Words substituted in place of taboo words. Equivocation Intentionally ambiguous speech.

9 Gender and Language Content Reasons for Communicating
Research shows that men and women discuss similar topics in same-sex conversations. Reasons for Communicating P.96 Conversational Style Women ask more tag questions than men. Men interrupt women more during conversation. Women accommodate more to topics men use.

10 Culture and Language Verbal Communication Styles Low-Context
Use direct language to express thoughts, feelings, and ideas as clearly and logically as possible. High-Context Use the context in which a message is delivered in order to express and discover meaning.

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