2 The Nature of LanguageLanguage: a collection of symbols governed by rules and used to convey messages between individuals.Language is symbolicArbitrary constructions that represent a communicator’s thoughts.
3 Meanings are in people, not words. UserWord(Symbol)Thing(Referent)
4 Language is Rule Governed Phonological RulesWord pronunciationsSyntactic RulesRules of syntax/grammar.Semantic RulesGive words meaning.Pragmatic RulesGovern how we use language p.75
5 The Power of Language Language Shapes Attitudes NamingCredibilityStatusSexism and RacismLanguage Reflects AttitudesPowerPowerful vs. powerlessAffiliationConvergence vs. divergenceAttraction and InterestResponsibility
6 Billy Bob Booger Esq. Education: Experience: Harvard Law SchoolStanford UniversityB.S. Biophysics and PsychobiologyExperience:1995-Present Microsoft CorporationDirector of Internal AffairsFranklin CoveyHead Consultant and Trainer
7 Troublesome Language Misunderstandings Slang Equivocal Language “we need to talk”Relative WordsPerson A:“The coffee is so strong”Person B: “Actually, it’s quite weak”SlangUsed by groups of people whose members belong to a similar group.JargonSpecialized vocabulary used by people with common background and experience.Overly Abstract LanguageAmbiguity
8 Confusing facts and opinions Disruptive LanguageConfusing facts and opinionsFacts are true or falseOpinions are speaker’s beliefs.Confusing facts and inferencesConclusions made based on little evidence.Emotive LanguageDescribe the speakers opinions based on how the speaker presents the message.Evasive LanguageEuphemismsWords substituted in place of taboo words.EquivocationIntentionally ambiguous speech.
9 Gender and Language Content Reasons for Communicating Research shows that men and women discuss similar topics in same-sex conversations.Reasons for CommunicatingP.96Conversational StyleWomen ask more tag questions than men.Men interrupt women more during conversation.Women accommodate more to topics men use.
10 Culture and Language Verbal Communication Styles Low-Context Use direct language to express thoughts, feelings, and ideas as clearly and logically as possible.High-ContextUse the context in which a message is delivered in order to express and discover meaning.