TK6123: COMPUTER ORGANISATION & ARCHITECTURE Lecture 8: CPU and Memory (3) 1 Prepared By: Associate Prof. Dr Masri Ayob.
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TK6123: COMPUTER ORGANISATION & ARCHITECTURE Lecture 8: CPU and Memory (3) 1 Prepared By: Associate Prof. Dr Masri Ayob
Contents This lecture will discuss: Cache. Error Correcting Codes. 2
The Memory Hierarchy Trade-off: cost, capacity and access time. Faster access time, greater cost per bit. Greater capacity, smaller cost per bit. Greater capacity, slower access time. 3 Transfer Rate - rate at which data can be moved. Access time -the time it takes to perform a read or write operation. Memory Cycle time – Time that is required for the memory to “recover” before next access, i.e. access + recovery. Memory Cycle time – Time that is required for the memory to “recover” before next access, i.e. access + recovery.
Memory Hierarchies A five-level memory hierarchy. 4
Hierarchy List Registers L1 Cache L2 Cache Main memory Disk cache Disk Optical Tape 5 Internal memory external memory decreasing cost/bit, increasing capacity, and slower access time
Hierarchy List It would be nice to use only the fastest memory, but because that is the most expensive memory, we trade off access time for cost by using more of the slower memory. The design challenge is to organise the data and programs in memory so that the accessed memory words are usually in the faster memory. 6
Hierarchy List In general, it is likely that most future accesses to main memory by the processor will be to locations recently accessed. So the cache automatically retains a copy of some of the recently used words from the DRAM. If the cache is designed properly, then most of the time the processor will request memory words that are already in the cache. 7
Hierarchy List No one technology is optimal in satisfying the memory requirements for a computer system. As a consequence, the typical computer system is equipped with a hierarchy of memory subsystems; some internal to the system (directly accessible by the processor) and some external (accessible by the processor via an I/O module). 8
Cache Small amount of fast memory Sits between normal main memory and CPU May be located on CPU chip or module 9 or cache line.
Cache The cache contains a copy of portions of main memory. When the processor attempts to read a word of memory, a check is made to determine if the word is in the cache. If so (hit), the word is delivered to the processor. If not (miss), a block of main memory, consisting of some fixed number of words, is read into the cache and then the word is delivered to the processor. 10
Cache Because of the phenomenon of locality of reference, when a block of data is fetched into the cache to satisfy a single memory reference, it is likely that there will be future references to that same memory location or to other words in the block. 11 The ratio of hits to the total number of requests is known as the hit ratio.
Cache operation – overview CPU requests contents of memory location Check cache for this data If present, get from cache (fast) If not present, read required block from main memory to cache Then deliver from cache to CPU Cache includes tags to identify which block of main memory is in each cache slot 13
Cache Design Size Mapping Function Replacement Algorithm Write Policy Block Size Number of Caches – L1, L2, L3 etc. 15
Size does matter Cost More cache is expensive Speed More cache is faster (up to a point) Checking cache for data takes time 16 The larger the cache, the larger the number of gates involved in addressing the cache. The result is that large caches tend to be slightly slower than small ones. We would like the size of the cache to be small enough so that the overall average cost per bit is close to that of main memory alone and large enough so that the overall average access time is close to that of the cache alone.
Comparison of Cache Sizes 17 a Two values seperated by a slash refer to instruction and data caches b Both caches are instruction only; no data caches ProcessorType Year of Introduction L1 chacheL2 cacheL3 cache IBM 360/85Mainframe196816 to 32 KB—— PDP-11/70Minicomputer19751 KB—— VAX 11/780Minicomputer197816 KB—— IBM 3033Mainframe197864 KB—— IBM 3090Mainframe1985128 to 256 KB—— Intel 80486PC19898 KB—— PentiumPC19938 KB/8 KB256 to 512 KB— PowerPC 601PC199332 KB—— PowerPC 620PC199632 KB/32 KB—— PowerPC G4PC/server199932 KB/32 KB256 KB to 1 MB2 MB IBM S/390 G4Mainframe199732 KB256 KB2 MB IBM S/390 G6Mainframe1999256 KB8 MB— Pentium 4PC/server20008 KB/8 KB256 KB— IBM SP High-end server/ supercomputer 200064 KB/32 KB8 MB— CRAY MTA b Supercomputer20008 KB2 MB— ItaniumPC/server200116 KB/16 KB96 KB4 MB SGI Origin 2001High-end server200132 KB/32 KB4 MB— Itanium 2PC/server200232 KB256 KB6 MB IBM POWER5High-end server200364 KB1.9 MB36 MB CRAY XD-1Supercomputer200464 KB/64 KB1MB—
Cache: Mapping Function Cache lines < main memory blocks: An algorithm is needed for mapping main memory blocks into cache lines. Three techniques: Direct Associative set associative 18
Direct Mapping Each block of main memory maps to only one cache line i.e. if a block is in cache, it must be in one specific place. pros & cons Simple Inexpensive Fixed location for given block If a program accesses 2 blocks that map to the same line repeatedly, cache misses are very high 19
Associative Mapping A main memory block can load into any line of cache Memory address is interpreted as tag and word Tag uniquely identifies block of memory Every line’s tag is examined for a match Disadvantage: Cache searching gets expensive The complex circuitry is required to examine the tags of all cache lines in parallel. 20
Set Associative Mapping A compromise that exhibits the strengths of both the direct and associative approaches while reducing their disadvantages. Cache is divided into a number of sets. Each set contains a number of lines. A given block maps to any line in a given set e.g. Block B can be in any line of set i. 21
Set Associative Mapping With fully associative mapping, the tag in a memory address is quite large and must be compared to the tag of every line in the cache. With k-way set associative mapping, the tag in a memory address is much smaller and is only compared to the k tags within a single set. 22
Replacement Algorithms When cache memory is full, some block in cache memory must be selected for replacement. Direct mapping : No choice Each block only maps to one line Replace that line 23
Replacement Algorithms (2) Associative & Set Associative Hardware implemented algorithm (speed) Least Recently used (LRU) An LRU algorithm, keeps track of the usage of each block and replaces the block that was last used the longest time ago. First in first out (FIFO) replace block that has been in cache longest Least frequently used (LFU) replace block which has had fewest hits Random 24
Write Policy Issues: Must not overwrite a cache block unless main memory is up to date Multiple CPUs may have individual caches I/O may address main memory directly 25
Write through All writes go to main memory as well as cache Multiple CPUs can monitor main memory traffic to keep local (to CPU) cache up to date Disadvantage: Lots of traffic Slows down writes Create a bottleneck. 26
Cache: Line Size As the block size increases from very small to larger sizes, the hit ratio will at first increase because of the principle of locality. Two issues: Larger blocks reduce the number of blocks that fit into a cache. Because each block fetch overwrites older cache contents, a small number of blocks results in data being overwritten shortly after they are fetched. As a block becomes larger, each additional word is farther from the requested word, therefore less likely to be needed in the near future. 27
Number of Caches Multilevel Caches: On-chip cache: A cache on the same chip as the processor. Reduces the processor’s external bus activity and therefore speeds up execution times and increases overall system performance. 28
Number of Caches Multilevel Caches: external cache: Is it still desirable? Yes - most contemporary designs include both on-chip and external caches. E.g. two-level cache, with the internal cache (L1) and the external cache (L2). Why? If there is no L2 cache and the processor makes an access request for a memory location not in the L1 cache, then the processor must access DRAM or ROM memory across the bus – poor performance. 29
Number of Caches More recently, it has become common to split the cache into two: one dedicated to instructions and one dedicated to data. There are two potential advantages of a unified cache: For a given cache size, a unified cache has a higher hit rate than split caches because it balances the load between instruction and data fetches automatically. Only one cache needs to be designed and implemented. 30
Number of Caches More recently, it has become common to split the cache into two: The trend is toward split caches, such as the Pentium and PowerPC, which emphasize parallel instruction execution and the prefetching of predicted future instructions. Advantage: It eliminates contention for the cache between the instruction fetch/decode unit and the execution unit. 31
Intel Cache Evolution 32 ProblemSolutionProcessor on which feature first appears External memory slower than the system bus.Add external cache using faster memory technology. 386 Increased processor speed results in external bus becoming a bottleneck for cache access. Move external cache on-chip, operating at the same speed as the processor. 486 Internal cache is rather small, due to limited space on chip.Add external L2 cache using faster technology than main memory 486 Contention occurs when both the Instruction Prefetcher and the Execution Unit simultaneously require access to the cache. In that case, the Prefetcher is stalled while the Execution Unit’s data access takes place. Create separate data and instruction caches. Pentium Increased processor speed results in external bus becoming a bottleneck for L2 cache access. Create separate back-side bus that runs at higher speed than the main (front-side) external bus. The BSB is dedicated to the L2 cache. Pentium Pro Move L2 cache on to the processor chip. Pentium II Some applications deal with massive databases and must have rapid access to large amounts of data. The on-chip caches are too small Add external L3 cache.Pentium III Move L3 cache on-chip.Pentium 4
Locality Why the principle of locality make sense? In most cases, the next instruction to be fetched immediately follows the last instruction fetched (except for branch and call instructions). A program remains confined to a rather narrow window of procedure-invocation depth. Thus, over a short period of time references to instructions tend to be localised to a few procedures. 33
Locality Why the principle of locality make sense? Most iterative constructs consist of a relatively small number of instructions repeated many times. In many programs, much of the computation involves processing data structures, such as arrays or sequences of records. In many cases, successive references to these data structures will be to closely located data items. 34
Memory Packaging and Types A group of chips, typically 8 or 16, is mounted on a tiny PCB and sold as a unit. SIMM - single inline memory module, has a row of connectors on one side. SIMM - single inline memory module, has a row of connectors on one side. DIMM – Dual inline memory module, has a row of connectors on both side. DIMM – Dual inline memory module, has a row of connectors on both side. 36 A SIMM holding 256 MB. Two of the chips control the SIMM.
Error Correction Hard Failure Permanent defect Caused by harsh environmental abuse, manufacturing defects, and wear. Soft Error Random, non-destructive No permanent damage to memory Caused by power supply problems. Detected using Hamming error correcting code. 37
Error Correction When reading out the stored word, a new set of K code bits is generated from M data bits and compared with fetch code bits. Results: No errors – the fetch data bits are sent out. An error is detected, and it is possible to correct the error. Data bits + error correction bits corrector sent out the corrected set of M bits. An error is detected, but it is not possible to correct the error. This condition is reported. 38
Error Correcting Code Function 39 A function to produce code Stored codeword: M+K bits
Error Correcting Codes: Venn diagram (a) Encoding of 1100 (b) Even parity added (c) Error in AC 40
Error Correction: Hamming Distance The number of bit positions in which two codewords differ is called the Hamming distance. If two codewords are a Hamming distance d apart, it will require d single-bit errors to convert one into the other. E.g. the codewords 11110001 and 00110000 are a Hamming distance 3 apart because it takes 3 single-bit errors to convert one into the other. 41
Error Correction: Hamming Distance To detect d single-bit errors, you need a distance d + 1 code. To correct d single-bit errors, you need a distance 2d + 1 code. 42 To determine how many bits differ, just compute the bitwise Boolean EXCLUSIVE OR of the two codewords, and count the number of 1 bits in the result.
Example: Hamming algorithm All bits whose bit number (start with bit 1) is a power of 2 are parity bits; the rest are used for data. E.g. with a 16-bit word, 5 parity bits are added. Bits 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 are parity bits, and all the rest are data bits. Bit b is checked by those bits b1, b2, …bj such that b1+b2+…+bj=b. For example, bit 5 is checked by bits 1 and 4 because 1+4=5. 43
Example: Hamming algorithm Construction of the Hamming code for the memory word 1111000010101110 by adding 5 check bits to the 16 data bits. 44 We will (arbitrarily) use even parity in this example.
Example: Hamming algorithm Consider what would happen if bit 5 were inverted by an electrical surge on the power line. The new codeword would be 001001100000101101110 instead of 001011100000101101110. The 5 parity bits will be checked, with the following results: 45 Since parity bits 1 and 4 are incorrect but 2, 8, and 16 are correct bit 5 (1 + 4) has been inverted.