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The Nursing Process Resources Andrea Ackermann, Mount St. Mary College, Critical-thinking-the-nursing- process 2001.

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Presentation on theme: "The Nursing Process Resources Andrea Ackermann, Mount St. Mary College, Critical-thinking-the-nursing- process 2001."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Nursing Process

3 Resources Andrea Ackermann, Mount St. Mary College, Critical-thinking-the-nursing- process 2001. 28,(2005 28,(2005) Sara-jo Wiscombe, Nursing Process,Wallace Community College,May 22,2001. Tucker C, MODULE A INTRODUCTION TO NURSING Process, August 21, 2002.


5 The Nursing Process An organizational framework for the practice of nursing Orderly, systematic Central to all nursing care Encompasses all steps taken by the nurse in caring for a patient

6 Definition of the Nursing Process An organized sequence of problem- solving steps used to identify and to manage the health problems of clients It is accepted for clinical practice established by the American Nurses Association

7 Benefits of Nursing Process Provides an orderly & systematic method for planning & providing care Enhances nursing efficiency by standardizing nursing practice Facilitates documentation of care Provides a unity of language for the nursing profession Is economical Stresses the independent function of nurses Increases care quality through the use of deliberate actions

8 The Nursing Process Utilizes The Following Assessment Nursing Diagnosis Planning Implementation Evaluation

9 Characteristics of the Nursing Process Within the legal scope of nursing Based on knowledge-requiring critical thinking Planned-organized and systematic Client-centered Goal-directed Prioritized Dynamic

10 Benefits of using the nursing process Continuity of care Prevention of duplication Individualized care Standards of care Increased client participation Collaboration of care

11 Being Accountable Using critical thinking before taking actions Being responsible for your actions Entering the professional role Working at the level of your peers Using the nursing process

12 Something to think about: Nurses are responsible for a unique dimension of healthcare – “ the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems”

13 MARTHA ROGERS, NURSE THEORIST “When an apple is cut, others see seeds in the apple. We, as nurses, see apples in the seeds.”

14 What Are Your Responsibilities? Recognize health problems. Anticipate complications. Initiate actions to ensure appropriate and timely treatment. Begin to think CRITICALLY !!!!!!

15 Critical Thinking MENTAL OPERATIONS –decision making & reasoning KNOWLEDGE-having the facts & understanding the reason behind the knowledge ATTITUDES- curious/open-minded/non- judgmental….

16 Critical Thinking Critical thinking in nursing is an essential component of professional accountability and quality nursing care. Critical thinking is careful, deliberate, and goal directed.

17 Assessment of Well-Being According to the World Health Organization is well-being in these domains: Emotional Physical Social Spiritual

18 Lets Get Started : Nurse collects background info from previous charts Ensure environment is conducive Arrange seating Allow adequate time Nurse introduces self Identifies purpose of interview Ensure confidentiality of information Provide for patient needs before starting


20 ASSESSMENT Observation Interview Types of questions Environment (physical and emotional) Spiritual conciderations Examination

21 Types of Data To Collect: Objective data-observable and measurable facts (Signs) Subjective data-information that only the client feels and can describe (Symptoms)

22 CULTURAL DIVERSITY MUST PROVIDE CARE CONGRUENT WITH A CLIENT’S EXPECTATIONS “This is not about you” ? Respect INDIVIDUAL’S DIFFERENCES, What is the significance of the problem or illness to the client? What does it mean in the family/community?



25 Resources Client Other individuals Previous records Consultations Diagnostics studies Relevant literature

26 Assessment Data base assessment – comprehensive information you gather on initial contact with the person to assess all aspects of health status. Focus assessment – the data you gather to determine the status of a specific condition.

27 Sources of Data Primary source: Client Secondary source: Client’s family, reports, test results, information in current and past medical records, and discussions with other health care workers

28 Disease Prevention Primary prevention – protection from a disease while still in a healthy state. Secondary prevention – early detection and treatment of disease. Tertiary prevention – prevent complications and to maintain health once the disease process has occurred.

29 Verifying Data Essential in critical thinking!!!!! Measurable data Double check personal observations Double check equipment Check with experts and team members Recheck out-liers Compare objective and subjective data Clarify statements

30 Planning Establish the goals, interventions and outcomes

31 General Guidelines for Setting Priorities 1. Take care of immediate life-threatening issues. 2. Safety issues. 3. Patient-identified issues. 4. Nurse-identified priorities based on the overall picture, the patient as a whole person, and availability of time and resources.

32 Nurse Identified Priorities Composite of all patient’s strengths and health concerns. Moral and ethical issues. Time, resources, and setting. Hierarchy of needs. Interdisciplinary planning.

33 Identifying Client-centered Outcomes State what the patient will do or experience at the completion of care. Give direction to the patient’s overall care. Patient behaviors not nurse behaviors!!  “The patient will…”

34 DIAGNOSIS Sort, cluster, analyze information Identify potential problems and strengths Write statement of problem or strength Risk of infection related to compromised nutrition

35 Nursing Diagnosis (cont.) Potential for effective breastfeeding related to knowledge level and support system Prioritize the problems Not a medical diagnosis

36 Steps for deriving outcomes from Nursing Diagnosis Look at the first clause of the nursing dx and restate in a statement that describes improvement, control or absence of the problem.  Risk for infection r/t surgical procedure.  The client will demonstrate no signs or symptoms of infection.

37 Components of Outcomes Subject: who is the person expected to achieve the outcome? Verb: what actions must the person take to achieve the outcome? Condition: under what circumstances is the person to perform the actions? Performance criteria: how well is the person to perform the actions? Target time: by when is the person expected to be able to perform the actions?

38 Nursing Interventions Road maps directing the best ways to provide nursing care. Evidence based nursing. 1. Monitor health status. 2. Minimize risks. 3. Resolve or control a problem. 4. Assist with ADLs. 5. Promote optimum health and independence.

39 Interventions Direct interventions: actions performed through interaction with clients. Indirect interventions: actions performed away from the client, on behalf of a client or group of clients.

40 Nursing Diagnosis Health issue that can be prevented, reduced, resolved, or enhanced through independent nursing measures

41 Documenting the Plan of Care To ensure continuity of care, the plan must be written and shared with all health care personnel caring for the client. Consists of: 1. Prioritized nursing diagnostic statements. 2. Outcomes. 3. Interventions.

42 Documentation Clear and concise Appropriate terminology Usually on a designated form Physical assessment Usually by Review of Systems Overview of symptoms Diet Each body system

43 Documentation Use patient’s own words in subjective data – enclose in “ ___” (quotation marks) Avoid generalizations – be specific Don’t make summative statements – describe - e.g. patient is being ornery should be patient resists instruction or patient states “Don’t talk to me, I don’t care about that”

44 Evaluation 1. Determining outcome achievement 2. Identifying the variables affecting outcome achievement 3. Deciding whether to continue, modify, or terminate the plan

45 Determining Outcome Achievement Must be aware of outcomes set for the client. Must be sure patient is ready for evaluation. Is patient able to meet outcome criteria? Is it: Completely met? Partially met? Not met at all? Record in progress in notes. Update care plan.

46 Identifying Variable Affecting Outcome Achievement Maintain individuality of care plan: 1. Is the plan realistic for the client? 2. Is the plan appropriate at the time for this particular client? 3. Were changes made in the plan when needed? 4. How does the client feel about the plan?

47 Predict, Prevent, and Manage Focus on early intervention Based on research Predict and anticipate problems Look for risk factors

48 Diagnostic Statements Name of the health-related issue or problem as identified in the NANDA list Etiology (its cause) Signs and Symptoms The name of the nursing diagnosis is linked to the etiology with the phrase “related to,” and the signs and symptoms are identified with the phrase “as manifested (or evidenced) by”

49 Collaborative Problems- Nurse’s Responsibility Correlating medical diagnoses or medical treatment measures with the risk for unique complications Documenting the complications for which clients are at risk Making pertinent assessments to detect complications

50 Continued Reporting trends that suggest development of complications Managing the emerging problem with nurse- and physician-prescribed measures Evaluating the outcomes

51 The Nursing Process Nursing Diagnosis Judgment or conclusion about the risk for— or actual—need/problem of the patient NANDA format

52 NANDA – North American Nursing Diagnosis Association Identifies nursing functions Creates classification system Establishes diagnostic labels Risk of infection related to compromised nutritional state Potential complication of seizure disorder related to medication compliance

53 Planning The process of prioritizing nursing diagnoses and collaborative problems, identifying measurable goals or outcomes, selecting appropriate interventions, and documenting the plan of care. The nurse consults with the client while developing and revising the plan.

54 Setting Priorities Determine problems that require immediate action Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs

55 Short-Term Goals Outcomes achievable in a few days or 1 week Developed form the problem portion of the diagnostic statement Client-centered Measurable Realistic Accompanied by a target date

56 Long-Term Goals Desirable outcomes that take weeks or months to accomplish for client’s with chronic health problems

57 The Nursing Process Planning Identification of goals and outcome criteria Prioritization Time frame

58 Selecting Nursing Interventions Planning the measures that the client and nurse will use to accomplish identified goals involves critical thinking. Nursing interventions are directed at eliminating the etiologies.

59 Selecting an intervention The nurse selects strategies based on the knowledge that certain nursing actions produce desired effects. Nursing interventions must be safe, within the legal scope of nursing practice, and compatible with medical orders.

60 Communicating The Plan The nurse shares the plan of care with nursing team members, the client, and client’s family. The plan is a permanent part of the record.

61 Evaluation The way nurses determine whether a client has reached a goal. It is the analysis of the client’s response, evaluation helps to determine the effectiveness of nursing care.

62 The Nursing Process Evaluation Ongoing part of the nursing process Determining the status of the goals and outcomes of care Monitoring the patient’s response to drug therapy

63 Documentation Clear and concise Appropriate terminology Usually on a designated form Physical assessment Usually by Review of Systems Overview of symptoms Diet Each body system

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