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**AE = C + I + G + NX AE = GDP = Y = C + I + G + NX**

Output and Expenditure in the Short Run Aggregate expenditure (AE) The total amount of spending in the economy: the sum of consumption, planned investment, government purchases, and net exports. AE = C + I + G + NX Macroeconomic Equilibrium AE = GDP = Y = C + I + G + NX Unintended change in inventories: The Difference between Planned Investment and Actual Investment In macro-equilibrium, there is no unintended change in Inventories: Actual Investment = Planned Investment.

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**Adjustments to Macroeconomic Equilibrium**

The Relationship between Aggregate Expenditure (AE) and Output (GDP = Y) IF … THEN … AND … Aggregate expenditure equals GDP inventories are unchanged the economy is in macroeconomic equilibrium. Aggregate expenditure is less than GDP inventories rise GDP and employment decrease. Aggregate Expenditure is greater than GDP inventories fall GDP and employment increase. EXPENDITURE CATEGORY EXPENDITURE (BILLIONS OF 2000 DOLLARS) Consumption $8,091 Investment 1,946 Government 1,998 Net Exports −618

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**Determining the Level of Aggregate Expenditure : Consumption Spending (C)**

Determinants of C FIGURE 11-1 • Current disposable income • Household wealth • Expected future income • The price level • The interest rate

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**The Consumption Function **

Relation between real consumption expenditure (C) and real disposable income (DI) Slope of consumption function = Marginal propensity to consume = MPC

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**Consumption The Consumption Function**

The MPC determines how much consumption changes as income changes: or Change in consumption = Change in disposable income × MPC

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**The Relationship between Consumption and National Income**

Disposable income = National income − Net taxes or National income = GDP = Disposable income + Net taxes C Y

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**Income, Consumption, and Saving**

National income = Consumption + Saving + Taxes Change in national income = Change in consumption + Change in saving + Change in taxes Y = C + S + T and ΔY = ΔC + ΔS + ΔT To simplify, we assume taxes are constant ΔT = 0, so ΔY = ΔC + ΔS

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**Income, Consumption, and Saving**

Marginal propensity to save (MPS) The change in saving divided by the change in disposable income. or, 1 = MPC + MPS

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**MARGINAL PROPENSITY TO CONSUME (MPC) MARGINAL PROPENSITY TO SAVE (MPS)**

Calculating the Marginal Propensity to Consume and the Marginal Propensity to Save NATIONAL INCOME AND REAL GDP (Y) CONSUMPTION (C) SAVING (S) MARGINAL PROPENSITY TO CONSUME (MPC) MARGINAL PROPENSITY TO SAVE (MPS) $9,000 $8,000 $1,000 — 10,000 8,600 1,400 0.6 0.4 11,000 9,200 1,800 12,000 9,800 2,200 13,000 10,400 2,600

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**Determining the Level of Aggregate Expenditure in the Economy**

Planned Investment Determinants of Planned Investment Spending • Expectations of future profitability Waves of optimism and pessimism Animal Spirits • The interest rate • Cash flow • Taxes

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**Determining the Level of Aggregate Expenditure in the Economy**

Government Purchases: It is what it is Real Government Purchases, 1979–2006

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**Net exports : Determinants**

• The US price level relative to price levels in other countries • The growth rate of US GDP relative to the growth rates of GDP in other countries • The exchange rate between the dollar and other currencies Real Net Exports, 1979–2006

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**Graphing Macroeconomic Equilibrium**

The Relationship between Planned Aggregate Expenditure and GDP on a 45°-Line Diagram

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**Graphing Macroeconomic Equilibrium**

Macroeconomic Equilibrium on the 45°-Line Diagram

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**Showing a Recession on the 45°-Line Diagram**

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**Planned Aggregate Expenditure Unplanned Change in Inventories**

A Numerical Example of Macroeconomic Equilibrium When planned aggregate expenditure is less than output (real GDP), some firms will experience an unplanned increase in inventories. They will then reduce output. When planned aggregate expenditure is greater than output (real GDP), some firms will experience an unplanned decrease in inventories. They will then increase output. Real GDP (Y) Consumption (C) Planned Investment (I) Government Purchases (G) Net Exports (NX) Planned Aggregate Expenditure (AE) Unplanned Change in Inventories Real GDP Will … $8,000 $6,200 $1,500 – $500 $8,700 –$700 increase 9,000 6,850 1,500 –500 9,350 –350 Increase 10,000 7,500 Equilibrium 11,000 8,150 10,650 +350 decrease 12,000 8,800 11,300 +700 Don’t Let This Happen to YOU! Don’t Confuse Aggregate Expenditure with Consumption Spending

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**= Change in autonomous spending that sparks an expansion**

The Multiplier Effect Autonomous expenditure An expenditure that does not depend on the level of GDP. Multiplier The increase in equilibrium real GDP in response to increase in autonomous expenditure, e.g. Expenditure multiplier = ΔY/ΔI Multiplier effect The process by which an increase in autonomous expenditure leads to a larger increase in real GDP: ΔY = ΔI + ΔC = Change in autonomous spending that sparks an expansion + Change in consumption spending induced by increasing output and income.

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Suppose MPC = ¾ The Multiplier Effect

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**The Multiplier Effect: MPC = ¾**

ADDITIONAL AUTONOMOUS EXPENDITURE (INVESTMENT) ADDITIONAL INDUCED EXPENDITURE (CONSUMPTION) TOTAL ADDITIONAL EXPENDITURE = TOTAL ADDITIONAL GDP ROUND 1 $100 billion $0 ROUND 2 75 billion 175 billion ROUND 3 56 billion 231 billion ROUND 4 42 billion 273 billion ROUND 5 32 billion 305 billion . ROUND 10 8 billion 377 billion ROUND 15 2 billion 395 billion ROUND 19 1 billion 398 billion n $400 billion

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**The Multiplier in Reverse: The Great Depression of the 1930s**

The multiplier effect contributed to the very high levels of unemployment during the Great Depression. Year Consumption Investment Net Exports Real GDP Unemployment Rate 1929 $661 billion $91.3 billion $9.4illion $865 billion 3.2% 1933 $541 billion $17.0 billion -$10.2 billion $636 billion 24.9%

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The Multiplier Effect 1 The multiplier effect occurs both when autonomous expenditure increases and when it decreases… like now! 2 The multiplier effect makes the economy more sensitive to changes in autonomous expenditure than it would otherwise be. 3 The larger the MPC, the larger the value of the multiplier. 4 The formula for the multiplier, 1/(1 − MPC), is oversimplified. It ignores the effects an increasing GDP has on taxes, imports, inflation, and interest rates.

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**The Aggregate Demand Curve**

The Effect of a Change in the Price Level on Real GDP…A rise in the price level reduces net exports reduces the purchasing power of monetary wealth reduces real money balances and raises interest rates higher interest rates appreciate currency and further reduce net exports A rise in the price level reduces AE and reduces Y

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Aggregate demand curve A curve that shows the relationship between the price level and the level of planned aggregate expenditure in the economy, holding constant all other factors that affect aggregate expenditure.

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**Appendix The Algebra of Macroeconomic Equilibrium**

The letters with bars over them represent fixed, or autonomous, values. So, represents autonomous consumption, which had a value of 1,000 in our original example. Now, solving for equilibrium, we get: Or, Or, Or,

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