Selection Devices Interviews –Are the most frequently used selection tool. –Carry a great deal of weight in the selection process. –Can be biased toward those who “interview well.” –Should be structured to ensure against distortion due to interviewers’ biases. (What is “structured”???)
Selection Devices (cont’d) Written Tests –Test applicants for: Intelligence Aptitude Ability Interest (attitude) Integrity –CAREFUL!!! Tests must be show validated connection to job-related performance requirements –How? VIA A JOB ANALYSIS!!!
Selection Devices (cont’d) Performance-Simulation Tests –These have validities (correlation with job performance) superior to written aptitude and personality tests. –Work Sampling (e.g., assembly line) –Assessment Centers (e.g., supermarket managers)
Training and Development Programs Types of Training Basic Literacy Technical Skills Interpersonal Skills Problem Solving
Career Development Responsibilities Organization –Clearly communicate organization’s goals and future strategies. –Create growth opportunities. –Offer financial assistance. –Provide time for employees to learn. Employees –Know yourself. –Manage your reputation. –Build and maintain network contacts. –Keep current. –Balance your generalist and specialist competencies. –Document your achievement. –Keep your options open.
Performance Evaluation Purposes of Performance Evaluation 1) Making general human resource decisions. Promotions, transfers, and terminations 2) Identifying training and development needs. Employee skills and competencies 3) Validating selection and development programs. Employee performance compared to selection evaluation and anticipated performance results of participation in training. 4) Providing feedback to employees. The organization’s view of their current performance 5) Supplying the basis for rewards allocation decisions. Merit pay increases and other rewards
Performance Evaluation (cont’d) Performance Evaluation and Motivation –If employees are to be motivated to perform, then: Performance objectives must be clear. Performance criteria must be related to the job. Performance must be accurately evaluated. Performance must be properly rewarded.
Performance Evaluation (cont’d) So……What Do We Evaluate? TraitsTraits Individual Task Outcomes BehaviorsBehaviors Performance Evaluation
Performance Evaluation (cont’d) So…..Who Should Do the Evaluating? Immediate Supervisor Peers Self-Evaluation Immediate Subordinates
Methods of Performance Evaluation Written essays by an evaluator Critical incidents: Behaviors which are effective (or ineffective) Graphic rating scales Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS): Using specific behaviors as the rating scale Forced comparisons
Methods of Performance Evaluation (example) Oversleeps for class. Get to class on time, but nods off immediately. Stays awake but is inattentive. Alert and takes occasional notes. Pays close attention and regularly takes notes. Passes next examination and graduates on time.
Suggestions for Improving Performance Evaluations Emphasize behaviors rather than traits. Document performance behaviors in a diary. Use multiple evaluators to overcome rater biases. Evaluate selectively based on evaluator competence. Train evaluators to improve rater accuracy. Provide employees with due process.
Providing Performance Feedback Why Managers Are Reluctant to Give Feedback –Uncomfortable discussing performance weaknesses directly with employees. –Employees tend to become defensive when their weaknesses are discussed. –Employees tend to have an inflated assessment of their own performance. Solutions to Improving Feedback –Train managers in giving effective feedback. –Use performance review as counseling activity rather than as a judgment process.
Providing Performance Feedback (cont’d) What About Team Performance Evaluations? How should we do these? 1.Tie the team’s results to the organization’s goals. 2.Begin with the team’s customers and the work process the team follows to satisfy customer needs. 3.Measure both team and individual performance. 4.Train the team to create its own measures.
International HR Practices: Selected Issues Selection –Few common procedures, differ by nation. Performance Evaluation –Not emphasized or considered appropriate in many cultures due to differences in such things as: Individualism versus collectivism (personality types and differences in culture). A person’s relationship to the environment. Time orientation (long- or short-term).
Managing Diversity in Organizations Work Personal Life Integration or Segmentation Work -Life Conflicts
Managing Diversity in Organizations (cont’) Diversity Training –Participants learn to value individual differences, increase cross-cultural understanding, and confront stereotypes. –A typical diversity training program: Lasts for half a day to three days. Includes role-playing exercises, lectures, discussions, and sharing experiences.
Summary Selection: Identify right person for right job Training & Development: Increase skills and self- efficacy (improve effort – we’ll talk more about this) Performance Evaluations: How well do you do your job? Be specific – focus on what you want – behaviors/outcomes and allow “ratees” a chance to participate ***ALL 3 are based on JOB ANALYSIS data***