Unit 7 Body Language I. Teaching contents: Body language: ownership gestures II. Teaching objectives By the end of this lesson, students should be able.
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Unit 7 Body Language I. Teaching contents: Body language: ownership gestures II. Teaching objectives By the end of this lesson, students should be able to: A. Know the cultural differences of body language. B. Understand how to make invitations and accept or refuse them. C. Grasp the words or phrases related to body language.
III. Foci: 1. The cultural differences of body language 2. Key words: personnel, appoint, despite, reflect, easygoing, relax, carefree, gesture, signify, customary, etiquette, impact, circumstance solution, lean, deject, intent, indifference, impatient, terminate, breath, sign, relief
3. Phrases: be guilty of, be appointed to, prior to, lack of, go away, resort to, stake one ’ s claim 4. Useful structure: It is noticed/ unlucky that … It is normal/ common/ vital (for sb) to … 5. Communicative skills Expressions: making invitation
Cultural Background Body Language Body language is a term used to describe people ’ s facial expressions, gestures, and other movements of the body that send messages. It is very useful because it can help you make yourself easily understood. For example, waving one' s hand is to say "Good bye". Nodding the head means agreement, but shaking the head means disagreement.
Different countries have different body language. For example, men in Russia, France and Arab countries kiss each other when they meet, but men in China or Australia shake hands instead of kissing. When you use a foreign language, it is very important to know the meanings of gestures and movements in the foreign country. Following the customs will help you communicate with people and make your stay there much more pleasant and comfortable.
Different interpretations of body language It is important to note that body language has different meanings in different cultures. How we can interpret body language depends on the situation, the culture, the relationship we have with the person as well as the gender of the other. This means that there is not one signal that has the same meaning all over the world. If you do not take this into account, you may get yourself in some serious trouble!
The expression of feelings Body language is used especially to express feelings. For instance, if we do not like someone, it is often difficult to say that directly to the person. However we can make it clear either intentionally or unintentionally through body language. The opposite is also true.
Brainstorming : Work with your partner and write out the means we use to communicate with each other. words; body movement; e-mails; clapping hands; Verbal Non- Verbal
Pair-work: Discuss the following questions with your partner. 1. What do you know about body language? 2 Are you good at reading body language? 3. Which is the most expressive part of your body? 4. What do you think contributes to one ’ s use pf body language? 5. Why is it important for sales people to know and use body language?
Structure of Reading I Introduction: (Paragraph 1-2) What is ownership gesture? Body: (Paragraph 3-4) How does a boss use ownership gestures? Concluding: (Paragraph 5) What should you do when you find such gestures?
Detailed studying of the text A: New words and phrases 1. management: n. 1 ） control and organization (of a business, etc) The failure was caused by poor management. 2 ） all those who control a business, enterprise, etc. The business is under new management. 3 ） skill in dealing with people It needs a good deal of management to persuade him to consent.
2. guilty: adj. having done wrong; being to blame (for sth.); showing of feeling guilt The verdict of the jury was “ not guilty ”. I feel guilty about visiting her so rarely. guilt n. e.g. The police established his guilt beyond all doubt. guiltless adj. He was proved guiltless of the offence. be guilty of (sth./doing sth.) He was guilty of underestimating the problem.
3. despite: prep. in spite of 1) They had a wonderful holiday, despite the bad weather. 2) Despite a shortage of steel, industrial output has increased by five percent. 4. reflect: v. 反射；反映，表明，显示；深思，考虑 1) The white sand reflected the sun ’ s heat. 2) Their clothes reflected a rising standard of living in their country. 3) He reflected how to get out of the difficulty. reflection n. the reflection of a sound wave an accurate reflection of reality After some reflection, the minister granted the request.
5 ． easygoing : adj. (of people ) relaxed and casual in style or manner My mother doesn ’ t mind who comes to stay, she ’ s very easygoing. 6 ． relax : 1) vt./vi. to make or become less stiff or tight The drug will relax your muscles. His worried frown relaxed a little. 2 ） vt./vi. to make or become less worried or intense The music will help to relax you. During the break, they relax over a simple game like chess. relaxed adj. relaxed restrictions on imports He felt relaxed in mind and body. relaxation n. There must be no relaxation in our high standards. Golf is one of his relaxations. relaxing adj. relaxing climate 使人懒洋洋的气候
7 ． carefree : adj. free from anxiety After finishing our exams we all felt carefree. Tom is carefree with his money. 8 ． signify: vt. to be a sign of (sth.); make (sth.) known; mean What do these marks signify? She signified her approval with a smile. The clouds signified the coming storm.
9 ． signal: 1) vt./ vi. to express (sth ) by a special action We signal(l)ed a passing ship for help. She signal(l)ed for waitress to come over. 2 ） n. sign, gesture, sound, etc that conveys a message, command, etc She flashed the torch as a signal. 10 ． customary: adj. according to custom; usual Is it customary to tip waiters in your country? custom n. 风俗，习惯 It is difficult to get used to another country ’ s customs. customarily adv. She gave the speech of thanks to the chairman customarily. 她照例向主席致感谢词。
11. etiquette: n. formal rules of correct and polite behavior in society or among members of a profession diplomatic (international) etiquette a breach of medical etiquette 违反医学界的职业道德 In golf it is against the etiquette of the game to talk. 在高尔夫球赛中，讲话只违反常规的。 customary etiquette 传统礼节，传统的行为规范 12. impact: n. strong impression or effect on sb./sth. The strike made a significant impact on government policy. 这次罢工对政府的政策产生了重大的影响。 He collapsed under the full impact of the blow.
13 ． circumstance: n.. condition or fact connected with an event or action The weather is a circumstance to be taken into consideration. Circumstances permitting, we sail on Friday. in/under the circumstances 在这种情况下，既然如此 In/Under the circumstances, there is little hope for an early settlement. in/under no circumstances In/Under no circumstances should you see them again. 你决不能再 见他们了。 14 ． dejected: adj. depressed; sad She grew more and more melancholy and pale and dejected. deject vt. Such news dejects me. dejection n. She walked about listlessly, humming to herself in dejection. 她没精打采地走来走去，沮丧地低声哼着。
15 ． intently: adv. with fixed or eager attention The little girl gazed at the fire intently. 这个小女孩目不转睛地 盯着火看。 intent n./adj. The intent /intention of the speech escaped no one. 人人都能听出这篇演说词的含义。 He is intent on his studies. 他专心致志地学习。 There was an intent look on her face as she watched the game. 在观看比赛的时候，她脸上有一股急切的神情。 16. motionless: adj. without any movement The captain stood there motionless. 船长一动不动地站在那里。 motion n./vi The object is no longer in motion. 该物体已经处于静止状态。 I motioned to him to come quietly.
17. indifference: n. absence of interest, feeling or reaction 漠 不关心，冷淡，无兴趣 He treated my request with indifference. 他对我的要求置 若罔闻。 indifferent adj. 漠不关心的，冷淡的，无兴趣的 How can you be indifferent to the sufferings of starving people? 你怎能对饥民的疾苦无动于衷呢？
18. impatient: adj. unable to remain calm Don ’ t get so impatient! The bus will be here soon. impatience n. The teacher ’ s impatience with his slower students was beginning to show. 这位教师开始表现出对差生的不耐烦了。 impatiently adv. We sat waiting impatiently for the film to start. be impatient with sb / at sth You ’ re too impatient with her; she ’ s only a child. They are a little impatient at her digression. be impatient of sth 不能容忍某事 be impatient to do sth 迫不及待地想做某事 be impatient for results 渴待结果
terminate: v. come to an end or bring (sth.) to an end terminate a controversy terminate a marriage by divorce Review questions terminate each chapter. The meeting terminated in disorder. termination n. 终点，结局，终止 the termination of a contract the termination of a pregnancy
20. superior: 1) adj. better than average; higher in rank or position; showing that one thinks one is better than others They counted themselves the most superior race in the world. A soldier must obey his superior officers. 2) n. person of higher rank,position, etc; person or thing that is better obey one ’ s superiors 服从上级 He has no superior as a Shakespearian actor. superiority n. Their vast superiority in speed would be easily outweighed by the extortionate running costs. ] superior court 上级法院；高级法院 superior goods 优质商品，高档商品 superiority complex 自大情结；优越感 be superior to 优越于 ------ ；不为 ------ 所动 This engine is superior to that one in every respect. antonym: inferior 下级的，次等的
21. posture: 1 ） n. position of the body; attitude ， way of looking at sth. The artist asked the model to take a reclining posture. The government adopted an uncompromising posture on the issue of independence. 政府在独立这一问题上采取了毫不妥协的态度。 2) v. pose Stop posturing in front of that mirror and listen to me! 22. subtle: adj. not easy to detect or describe; fine; delicate subtle humor 微妙的幽默 a subtle smile 神秘的一笑 His whole attitude has undergone a subtle change. He is the subtlest of the politicians.
23. annoying: adj. make a little angry or impatient How annoying! an annoying noise an annoying habit annoy v. She was annoyed at/with his lighthearted attitude. 她对她那种若无其事的态度感到很生气。 Some people annoy, others simply disgust. 有些人让人讨厌，还有些甚至让人作呕。
24. negotiation: n. discussion aimed at reaching an agreement The price is a matter of negotiation. Negotiation of the sale took a long time. The settlement was achieved by peaceful negotiation. negotiate v. 谈判 negotiate a contract (a treaty, an agreement) negotiate with sb. about sth. We ’ ve decided to negotiate with the employers about our wage claim. 我们决定就工资问题与雇主谈判。
25. vital: adi. connected with or essential to life; essential to the existence The heart performs a vital bodily function. 心脏起着维持生命的重要作用。 It is absolutely vital that the matter be kept secret. vital to/for sth These measures are vital to national security. 这些措施对国家的安全至关重要。 Regular exercise is vital for your health.
26. hostile: adj. showing strong dislike; very unfriendly a hostile crowd ( glance, reception ， etc.) She found his manner towards her distinctly hostile. 她发现他对她的态度极不友好。 hostility n. feeling of hostility 敌对情绪 His suggestion met with some hostility. 27. be appointed to: 被任命为 ------ He was appointed to the vacant post. 他被委派填补那个空缺。 appoint vt. 任命 appoint sb. (to be) sth. / (as) sth. They have appointed Smith (to be) manager. 他们已经任命史密斯为经理。 Who shall we appoint (as) chairperson? 我们选派谁担任主席呢？
28. prior to: (formal) before The thought is always prior to the fact. 思维总是先于事实。 We received no notification prior to today ’ s date. prior adj. 优先的，较早的，重要的 I shall have to refuse your invitation because of a prior engagement. 我因有约在先，所以只好谢绝你的邀请。 priority n. 优先权 ; 优先的事物 ; 居要位 Japan ’ s priority in the field of microelectronics 日本在微电子学领域中的领先地位
29. go away: leave a place; disappear; fade We are going away for a few days. 我们要外出几天。 The smell hasn ’ t gone away. 气味尚未消失。 30. resort to: make use of sth. for help If negotiations fail we shall have to resort to strike action. Owing to the cost of animal protein, the poor world is forced to resort to almost entirely to plant protein. 由于动物蛋白价格昂贵，穷苦世界的人民几乎只好全靠 植物蛋白为生了。 resort n. 可求助的人或事物，应急的手段或对策；度假胜 地 Our only resort is to inform the police. 我们唯一的办法就是报警。 Brighton is a leading south coast resort. 布赖顿是南部地区最著名的海滨胜地。
B ． Difficult Sentences 1) It has been noted that employees who have been appointed to management positions suddenly begin to use them, despite the fact that they seldom used them prior to their promotion. 译文：据观察，员工一旦被任命某一个管理职位， 他们就开始用这些表示拥有权的姿势，尽管他 们在被升职以前很少用。
In the structure “ it is noted …”, “ that ” clause is the real subject while “ it ” is the formal subject. In English sentences there are two principles: to place new information toward the end of a sentence and to reserve the final position for the more complex parts of a clause or sentence. The former principle is called end-focus, the later, end-weight. These two principles work together to present the new and important information in communication. Many past participles can be used in the structure. For example, it was said (reported, rumored, announced, arranged, decided, stressed, expected, etc.) … Adjectives can also be used in this structure: It is strange (natural obvious, true, possible, likely, unusual etc.)
If the following adjectives are used in this structure: It is essential (appropriate, desirable, fitting, imperative, important, vital, impossible, necessary, obligatory, proper, etc.), the “ be-type ” subjunctive mood is always used. e.g. It is essential that all the facts be examined first. It is necessary that he come back without delay. I thought is advisable that an armed guard stand in readiness. It was appropriate that this tax be abolished. It is imperative that this mission not fail.
2 ） It would be normal to assume that the position of the man in the picture reflects an easygoing, relaxed and carefree attitude, because that is in fact what it is. It would be normal to … In this structure “ it ” is the formal subject and the real subject is the infinitive. The logical subject of the infinitive is introduced by “ for sb. ” “ to assume that the position of the man in the picture reflects an easygoing, relaxed and carefree attitude ” 译文：（我们）很自然会认为图中的人很随意， 很放松并且很悠闲，因为事实就是如此。