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2-1©2005 Prentice Hall 2 Individual Differences: Personality and Ability Chapter 2 Individual Differences: Personality and Ability
2-2 ©2005 Prentice Hall Chapter Objectives Understand the nature of personality and how it is determined by both nature and nurture Describe the Big Five personality traits and their implication for understanding behavior in organizations Appreciate the ways in which other personality traits, in addition to the Big Five, influence employees’ behaviors in organizations
2-3 ©2005 Prentice Hall Chapter Objectives Describe the different kinds of abilities that employees use to perform their jobs Appreciate how organizations manage ability through selection, placement, and training
2-4 ©2005 Prentice Hall Opening Case: Weldon’s Determination What does it take to lead one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world in a changing and highly competitive environment? William Weldon, CEO of Johnson & Johnson
2-5 ©2005 Prentice Hall Individual Differences AbilityPersonality
2-6 ©2005 Prentice Hall The Nature of Personality Personality –Develops over a person’s lifetime –Generally stable in the context of work –Can influence career choice, job satisfaction, stress, leadership, and even performance
2-7 ©2005 Prentice Hall Figure 2.1 Nature and Nurture: The Determinants of Personality
2-8 ©2005 Prentice Hall Figure 2.2 The Interaction of Personality and Situational Factors
2-9 ©2005 Prentice Hall Ben Schneider’s Attraction-Selection- Attrition (ASA) Framework Employee personalities = Organizational personality Individuals with similar personalities tend to be attracted to an organization (attraction) and hired by it (selection) and individuals with other types of personalities tend to leave the organization (attrition)
2-10 ©2005 Prentice Hall Figure 2.3 The Big Five Model of Personality Extraversion Neuroticism Conscientiousness Agreeableness Openness to Experience
2-11 ©2005 Prentice Hall Figure 2.4 A Big Five Personality Profile
2-12 ©2005 Prentice Hall Extraversion (Positive Affectivity) Personality trait that predisposes individuals to experience positive emotional states and feel good about themselves and the world around them ExtravertsIntroverts
2-13 ©2005 Prentice Hall Figure 2.5 A Measure of Extraversion It is easy for me to become enthusiastic about things I am doing. I often feel happy and satisfied for no particular reason. I live a very interesting life. Every day I do some things that are fun. I usually find ways to liven up my day. Most days I have moments of real fun or joy.
2-14 ©2005 Prentice Hall Neuroticism (Negative Affectivity) Personality trait that reflects people’s tendency to experience negative emotional states, feel distressed, and generally view themselves and the world around them negatively HighLow
2-15 ©2005 Prentice Hall Figure 2.6 A Measure of Neuroticism I often find myself worrying about something. My feelings are hurt rather easily. Often I get irritated at little annoyances. I suffer from nervousness. My mood often goes up and down. I sometimes feel “just miserable” for no good reason.
2-16 ©2005 Prentice Hall Agreeableness Personality trait that captures the distinction between individuals who get along well with other people and those who do not HighLow
2-17 ©2005 Prentice Hall Figure 2.7 Measures of Agreeableness How accurately does each statement describe you? I am interested in people. I am not really interested in others.* I sympathize with others’ feelings. I insult people.* I have a soft heart. I am not interested in other people’s problems.*
2-18 ©2005 Prentice Hall Conscientiousness Personality trait that describes the extent to which an individual is careful, scrupulous, and persevering HighLow
2-19 ©2005 Prentice Hall Figure 2.7 Measures of Conscientiousness How accurately does each statement describe you? I am always prepared. I leave my belongings around.* I pay attention to details. I make a mess of things.* I get chores done right away. I often forget to put things back in their proper place.*
2-20 ©2005 Prentice Hall Openness to Experience Personality trait that captures the extent to which an individual is –original, –open to a wide variety of stimuli, –has broad interests, and is –willing to take risks as opposed to being narrow-minded and cautious
2-21 ©2005 Prentice Hall Figure 2.7 Measures of Openness to Experience How accurately does each statement describe you? I have a rich vocabulary. I have difficulty understanding abstract ideas.* I have a vivid imagination. I am not interested in abstract ideas.* I have excellent ideas. I do not have a good imagination.*
2-22 ©2005 Prentice Hall Figure 2.8 Personality Traits Relevant to Organizations
2-23 ©2005 Prentice Hall Locus of Control InternalExternal
2-24 ©2005 Prentice Hall Self-Monitoring The extent to which people try to control the way they present themselves to others HighLow
2-25 ©2005 Prentice Hall Figure 2.9 A Measure of Self- Monitoring I find it hard to imitate the behavior of other people.* At parties and social gatherings, I do not attempt to do or say things that others will like.* I can only argue for ideas that I already believe.* I can make impromptu speeches even on topics about which I have almost no information. I guess I put on a show to impress or entertain others.
2-26 ©2005 Prentice Hall Self-Esteem Personality trait that describes the extent to which people have pride in themselves and their capabilities. HighLow
2-27 ©2005 Prentice Hall Type A versus Type B Personality Type A individuals have an intense desire to achieve, are extremely competitive, have a sense of urgency, are impatient, and can be hostile Type B individuals are more relaxed and easy going
2-28 ©2005 Prentice Hall Your Questions Why is nature and nurture important in employee personality? Leyla Using the Big Five Model of personality is it possible to give a test during interviewing to determine if the applicant it a good fit for a job or not? (Keith)
2-29 ©2005 Prentice Hall McClelland’s Learned Needs Managers should have a high need for achievement and power. Need for Achievement Need for Affiliation Need for Power
2-30 ©2005 Prentice Hall What a person is capable of doing Types of ability –Cognitive ability –Physical ability Motor skill Physical skill –Emotional intelligence The Nature of Ability
2-31 ©2005 Prentice Hall Figure 2.10 Types of Cognitive Ability
2-32 ©2005 Prentice Hall Figure 2.11 The Determinants of Cognitive and Physical Abilities
2-33 ©2005 Prentice Hall Emotional Intelligence The ability to understand and manage one’s own feelings and emotions and the feelings and emotions of others A good understanding of how to use emotions to promote effective functioning and well-being
2-34 ©2005 Prentice Hall Figure 2.12 A Measure of Emotional Intelligence I have a good sense of why I have certain feelings most of the time. I always know my friends’ emotions from their behavior. I always set goals for myself and then try my best to achieve them. I am able to control my temper so that I can handle difficulties rationally. I have good understanding of my own emotions. I always tell myself I am a competent person.
2-35 ©2005 Prentice Hall Management of Ability Selection PlacementTraining
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