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Network Layer4-1 Data Communication and Networks Lecture 6 Networks: Part 1 Circuit Switching, Packet Switching, The Network Layer October 13, 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "Network Layer4-1 Data Communication and Networks Lecture 6 Networks: Part 1 Circuit Switching, Packet Switching, The Network Layer October 13, 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 Network Layer4-1 Data Communication and Networks Lecture 6 Networks: Part 1 Circuit Switching, Packet Switching, The Network Layer October 13, 2005

2 Network Layer4-2 Switching Networks r Long distance transmission is typically done over a network of switched nodes r Nodes not concerned with content of data r End devices are stations m Computer, terminal, phone, etc. r A collection of nodes and connections is a communications network r Data routed by being switched from node to node

3 Network Layer4-3 Technology r Two different switching technologies m Circuit switching m Packet switching

4 Network Layer4-4 Simple Switched Network

5 Network Layer4-5 Circuit Switching r Dedicated communication path between two stations (during conversation) r Three phases m Establish m Transfer m Disconnect r Must have switching capacity and channel capacity to establish connection r Must have intelligence to work out routing

6 Network Layer4-6 Circuit Switching - Issues r Circuit switching is inefficient (designed for voice) m Resources dedicated to a particular call m Much of the time a data connection is idle m Data rate is fixed Both ends must operate at the same rate r Set up (connection) takes time r Once connected, transfer is transparent

7 Network Layer4-7 Packet Switching

8 Network Layer4-8 Basic Operation r Data transmitted in small packets m Typically 1000 octets m Longer messages split into series of packets m Each packet contains a portion of user data plus some control info r Control info m Routing (addressing) info r Packets are received, stored briefly (buffered) and passed on to the next node m Store and forward

9 Network Layer4-9 Use of Packets

10 Network Layer4-10 Network layer r transport segment from sending to receiving host r on sending side encapsulates segments into datagrams r on rcving side, delivers segments to transport layer r network layer protocols in every host, router r Router examines header fields in all IP datagrams passing through it network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical application transport network data link physical application transport network data link physical

11 Network Layer4-11 Key Network-Layer Functions r forwarding: move packets from router’s input to appropriate router output r routing: determine route taken by packets from source to dest. m Routing algorithms analogy: r routing: process of planning trip from source to dest r forwarding: process of getting through single interchange

12 Network Layer4-12 1 2 3 0111 value in arriving packet’s header routing algorithm local forwarding table header value output link 0100 0101 0111 1001 32213221 Interplay between routing and forwarding

13 Network Layer4-13 Connection setup r 3 rd important function in some network architectures: m ATM, frame relay, X.25 r Before datagrams flow, two hosts and intervening routers establish virtual connection m Routers get involved r Network and transport layer cnctn service: m Network: between two hosts m Transport: between two processes

14 Network Layer4-14 Network service model Q: What service model for “channel” transporting datagrams from sender to rcvr? Example services for individual datagrams: r guaranteed delivery r Guaranteed delivery with less than 40 msec delay Example services for a flow of datagrams: r In-order datagram delivery r Guaranteed minimum bandwidth to flow r Restrictions on changes in inter- packet spacing

15 Network Layer4-15 Network layer service models: Network Architecture Internet ATM Service Model best effort CBR VBR ABR UBR Bandwidth none constant rate guaranteed rate guaranteed minimum none Loss no yes no Order no yes Timing no yes no Congestion feedback no (inferred via loss) no congestion no congestion yes no Guarantees ?

16 Network Layer4-16 Virtual circuit vs. datagram networks

17 Network Layer4-17 Network layer connection and connection-less service r Datagram network provides network-layer connectionless service r VC network provides network-layer connection service r Analogous to the transport-layer services, but: m Service: host-to-host m No choice: network provides one or the other m Implementation: in the core

18 Network Layer4-18 Virtual circuits r call setup, teardown for each call before data can flow r each packet carries VC identifier (not destination host address) r every router on source-dest path maintains “state” for each passing connection r link, router resources (bandwidth, buffers) may be allocated to VC “source-to-dest path behaves much like telephone circuit” m performance-wise m network actions along source-to-dest path

19 Network Layer4-19 VC implementation A VC consists of: 1. Path from source to destination 2. VC numbers, one number for each link along path 3. Entries in forwarding tables in routers along path r Packet belonging to VC carries a VC number. r VC number must be changed on each link. m New VC number comes from forwarding table

20 Network Layer4-20 Forwarding table 12 22 32 1 2 3 VC number interface number Incoming interface Incoming VC # Outgoing interface Outgoing VC # 1 12 2 22 2 63 1 18 3 7 2 17 1 97 3 87 … … Forwarding table in northwest router: Routers maintain connection state information!

21 Network Layer4-21 Virtual circuits: signaling protocols r used to setup, maintain teardown VC r used in ATM, frame-relay, X.25 r not used in today’s Internet application transport network data link physical application transport network data link physical 1. Initiate call 2. incoming call 3. Accept call 4. Call connected 5. Data flow begins 6. Receive data

22 Network Layer4-22 Datagram networks r no call setup at network layer r routers: no state about end-to-end connections m no network-level concept of “connection” r packets forwarded using destination host address m packets between same source-dest pair may take different paths application transport network data link physical application transport network data link physical 1. Send data 2. Receive data

23 Network Layer4-23 Forwarding table Destination Address Range Link Interface 11001000 00010111 00010000 00000000 through 0 11001000 00010111 00010111 11111111 11001000 00010111 00011000 00000000 through 1 11001000 00010111 00011000 11111111 11001000 00010111 00011001 00000000 through 2 11001000 00010111 00011111 11111111 otherwise 3 4 billion possible entries

24 Network Layer4-24 Longest prefix matching Prefix Match Link Interface 11001000 00010111 00010 0 11001000 00010111 00011000 1 11001000 00010111 00011 2 otherwise 3 DA: 11001000 00010111 00011000 10101010 Examples DA: 11001000 00010111 00010110 10100001 Which interface?

25 Network Layer4-25 Datagram or VC network: why? Internet r data exchange among computers m “elastic” service, no strict timing req. r “smart” end systems (computers) m can adapt, perform control, error recovery m simple inside network, complexity at “edge” r many link types m different characteristics m uniform service difficult ATM r evolved from telephony r human conversation: m strict timing, reliability requirements m need for guaranteed service r “dumb” end systems m telephones m complexity inside network

26 Network Layer4-26 IP: Internet Protocol

27 Network Layer4-27 The Internet Network layer forwarding table Host, router network layer functions: Routing protocols path selection RIP, OSPF, BGP IP protocol addressing conventions datagram format packet handling conventions ICMP protocol error reporting router “signaling” Transport layer: TCP, UDP Link layer physical layer Network layer

28 Network Layer4-28 IP Addressing: introduction r IP address: 32-bit identifier for host, router interface r interface: connection between host/router and physical link m router’s typically have multiple interfaces m host may have multiple interfaces m IP addresses associated with each interface = 11011111 00000001 00000001 00000001 223 111

29 Network Layer4-29 Subnets r IP address: m subnet part (high order bits) m host part (low order bits) r What’s a subnet ? m device interfaces with same subnet part of IP address m can physically reach each other without intervening router network consisting of 3 subnets LAN

30 Network Layer4-30 Subnets Recipe r To determine the subnets, detach each interface from its host or router, creating islands of isolated networks. Each isolated network is called a subnet. Subnet mask: /24

31 Network Layer4-31 Subnets How many?

32 Network Layer4-32 IP addressing: CIDR CIDR: Classless InterDomain Routing m subnet portion of address of arbitrary length m address format: a.b.c.d/x, where x is # bits in subnet portion of address 11001000 00010111 00010000 00000000 subnet part host part

33 Network Layer4-33 IP datagram format ver length 32 bits data (variable length, typically a TCP or UDP segment) 16-bit identifier Internet checksum time to live 32 bit source IP address IP protocol version number header length (bytes) max number remaining hops (decremented at each router) for fragmentation/ reassembly total datagram length (bytes) upper layer protocol to deliver payload to head. len type of service “type” of data flgs fragment offset upper layer 32 bit destination IP address Options (if any) E.g. timestamp, record route taken, specify list of routers to visit. how much overhead with TCP? r 20 bytes of TCP r 20 bytes of IP r = 40 bytes + app layer overhead

34 Network Layer4-34 IP Fragmentation & Reassembly r network links have MTU (max.transfer size) - largest possible link-level frame. m different link types, different MTUs r large IP datagram divided (“fragmented”) within net m one datagram becomes several datagrams m “reassembled” only at final destination m IP header bits used to identify, order related fragments fragmentation: in: one large datagram out: 3 smaller datagrams reassembly

35 Network Layer4-35 IP Fragmentation and Reassembly ID =x offset =0 fragflag =0 length =4000 ID =x offset =0 fragflag =1 length =1500 ID =x offset =185 fragflag =1 length =1500 ID =x offset =370 fragflag =0 length =1040 One large datagram becomes several smaller datagrams Example r 4000 byte datagram r MTU = 1500 bytes 1480 bytes in data field offset = 1480/8

36 Network Layer4-36 NAT: Network Address Translation local network (e.g., home network) 10.0.0/24 rest of Internet Datagrams with source or destination in this network have 10.0.0/24 address for source, destination (as usual) All datagrams leaving local network have same single source NAT IP address:, different source port numbers

37 Network Layer4-37 NAT: Network Address Translation r Motivation: local network uses just one IP address as far as outside word is concerned: m no need to be allocated range of addresses from ISP: - just one IP address is used for all devices m can change addresses of devices in local network without notifying outside world m can change ISP without changing addresses of devices in local network m devices inside local net not explicitly addressable, visible by outside world (a security plus).

38 Network Layer4-38 NAT: Network Address Translation Implementation: NAT router must: m outgoing datagrams: replace (source IP address, port #) of every outgoing datagram to (NAT IP address, new port #)... remote clients/servers will respond using (NAT IP address, new port #) as destination addr. m remember (in NAT translation table) every (source IP address, port #) to (NAT IP address, new port #) translation pair m incoming datagrams: replace (NAT IP address, new port #) in dest fields of every incoming datagram with corresponding (source IP address, port #) stored in NAT table

39 Network Layer4-39 NAT: Network Address Translation S:, 3345 D:, 80 1 1: host sends datagram to 128.119.40, 80 NAT translation table WAN side addr LAN side addr, 5001, 3345 …… S:, 80 D:, 3345 4 S:, 5001 D:, 80 2 2: NAT router changes datagram source addr from, 3345 to, 5001, updates table S:, 80 D:, 5001 3 3: Reply arrives dest. address:, 5001 4: NAT router changes datagram dest addr from, 5001 to, 3345

40 Network Layer4-40 NAT: Network Address Translation r 16-bit port-number field: m 60,000 simultaneous connections with a single LAN-side address! r NAT is controversial: m routers should only process up to layer 3 m violates end-to-end argument NAT possibility must be taken into account by app designers, eg, P2P applications m address shortage should instead be solved by IPv6

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