Artificial Immune Systems Our body’s immune system is a perfect example of a learning system. It is able to distinguish between good cells and potentially.
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Artificial Immune Systems Our body’s immune system is a perfect example of a learning system. It is able to distinguish between good cells and potentially harmful ones. Artificial Immunes Systems (AISs) are learning and problem solvers based on our own immune systems [Hofmeyr, S., and Forrest, S. (1999). "Immunity by Design: An Artificial Immune System", Proceedings of the 1999 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, pp. 1289--1296. ]Hofmeyr, S., and Forrest, S. (1999). "Immunity by Design: An Artificial Immune System", Proceedings of the 1999 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, pp. 1289--1296. AISs have been used to solve a wide variety of problems including: –Computer Security, –Pattern Recognition, –Mortgage Fraud Detection, –Aircraft control, –Etc.
Artificial Immune Systems A typical AIS is composed of three type of detectors: –Immature, –Mature, –Memory Detectors match instances (training and/or test) via a matching rule. –A matching rule that is too general will allow a detector to match many instances; –A matching rule that is too specific will cause the detector to match few instances. An AIS evolves a population (detector set) over time. –Some immature detectors will be promoted to mature detectors (some immature detectors will die) –Some mature detectors will be promoted to be memory detectors while other mature detectors will die. –Some memory detectors may die due to: Changes in the problem Old age.
Artificial Immune Systems Immature Detectors Consider a problem where one must categorize an input instance as a member of one of two categories. Let the categories be self and non- self. Immature detectors are randomly generated and checked to see if they match any instances (in the training set) that are self. Any immature detectors that match a self instance die (are removed from the detector population) and are replaced with a new, randomly generated immature detector. Immature detectors that fail to match a t immature time (typically measured in instances) in a row are promoted to being mature detectors. The above process is referred to as Negative Selection.
Artificial Immune Systems Mature Detectors Once a detector becomes a mature detector is will usually match _________ instances. Mature detectors are allow t mature amount of time to detect (or match) m mature non-self instances. t mature represents the learning phase of a detector. Mature detectors that fail the match the required number of anomalies, m mature, within the specified amount of time, t mature, die an are replaced with a randomly generated immature detector. Otherwise the mature detector becomes a memory detector.
Artificial Immune Systems Memory Detectors Memory detectors are awarded a much longer time to live, t memory than immature or mature detectors. Typically the required number of anomalies they must detect within their life time is m memory = 1.
Artificial Immune Systems How will increasing m mature affect the performance of an AIS in terms of False Positives? What effects could it have on: –The immature detector sub-population, –The mature detector sub-population, and –The memory detector sub-population?
Artificial Immune Systems What effect would the values assigned to t immature and t mature have on the performance of an AIS. What effects could they have on: –The immature detector sub-population, –The mature detector sub-population, and –The memory detector sub-population?
Artificial Immune Systems The representation for the detectors of an AIS may be: –Binary-Coded, or –Real-Coded For Binary-Coded Representations, an r- contiguous bits matching rule can be used, For Real-Coded Representations, an any-r intervals matching rule can be used.
Artificial Immune Systems Consider the following AIS: Detector-1: Detector-2: Detector-3: And the following input: Input: Using the r-contiguous bits matching rule, which detectors match the input if: r = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8
Artificial Immune Systems By increasing r, we make the match between a detector and an input ________? By decreasing r, we make the match between a detector and an input ________?
Artificial Immune Systems Consider the following AIS: Detector-1: Detector-2: Detector-3: And the following input: Input: Using the any-r intervals matching rule, which detectors match the input if: r = 1, 2, 3
Artificial Immune Systems When working with real-coded (interval) detectors what other characteristic determines the generality or specificity of a match?
Artificial Immune Systems What would a Binary-Coded Detector for this problem look like? What would a Real-Coded (Interval) Detector for this problem look like?
Artificial Immune Systems How would we develop an AIS for this problem?
Vulnerability Analysis of Immunity-Based Intrusion Detection Systems Using Evolutionary Hackers Gerry Dozier Auburn University Douglas Brown Clark-Atlanta University John Hurley Boeing Krystal Cain Clark-Atlanta University
Overview Motivation The AIS-Based IDS The Genetic and Swarm-Based Red Teams Training and Test Sets for the IDS The Experiment Results and Conclusions
Motivation Intrusion Detection Systems based on machine learning techniques have two types of errors: –False Positives (Type-I Error) –False Negatives (Type-II Errors) Concerning Type-II Errors (Holes): –Does one try to identify and/or patch holes in advance? (Proactive Approach) –Does one allow the hackers to identify the holes first? (Reactive Approach)
Our AIS-Based IDS Our AIS-Based IDS is based on the work of Steven Hofmeyr & Stephanie Forrest (Hofmeyr & Forrest 1999). It distinguishes between: –self (normal traffic) –non-self (abnormal traffic)
Our AIS-Based IDS Our AIS-based IDS is composed of a set of detectors. There are three types of detectors –Immature Detectors –Mature Detectors –Memory Detectors Negative Selection is used to evolve mature detectors.
Our AIS-Based IDS The AIS receives packets in the form of data triples: – –src = 0 (incoming packet) –src = 1(outgoing packet) Constraint-Based Detectors –(lb 0..ub 0, lb 1..ub 1, lb 2..ub 2, lb 3..ub 3, lb port..ub port, src) An Any-3 interval matching rule is used. If an immature detector fails to match 200 self data triples, then it becomes a mature detector.
The Genetic and Swarm Based Red Teams The Genetic Red Team –Steady-State (μ+1) GA –Population Size = 300 ‘red’ data triples –BLX-0.5 Recombination (Eshelman & Schaffer, 1992)
The Genetic and Swarm-Based Red Teams The Particle Swarm Optimizer Used: –Asynchronous Update of V and X v id = v id + 1*rnd()*(p id -x id ) + 2*rnd()*(p gd -x id ); x id = x id + v id ; –Where i is the particle, – 1=2.3, 2=1.8 are learning rates governing the cognition and social components –Where g represents the index of the particle with the best p-fitness, and –Where d is the d th dimension.
The Genetic and Swarm-Based Red Teams The Swarm-Based Red Teams
Training and Test Sets for the AIS-Based IDS 1998 MIT Lincoln Lab Data –35 days of Simulated Network Traffic –Class B Network –Extracted packets involving host 172.16.112.50 –Removed packets involving port 80 –Mapped remaining packets to 70 distinct ports based on the work Hofmeyr and Forrest.
Training and Test Sets for the AIS-Based IDS Extracted normal traffic for training set (112 self data triples). Trained on 80% of the self data triples. Used the other 20% to test for the Type-I (false positive) error rate. Test set consisted of 1604 malicious packets (all attacks launched at the host during the 35 day period).
The Experiment A Comparison of the 7 Red Teams AIS-Based IDS used a population size of 400 detectors After the AIS was trained, each Red Team, using a population size of 300, was allowed a total of 5000 ‘red’ data triple evaluations. This was repeated 10 times. The AIS-Based IDS had: –a detection rate of 0.747 –a false positive rate of 0.4
The Experiment A ‘red’ data triple of a Red Team was evaluated as follows: –If a ‘red’ data triple was a member of the self-set, then it received a fitness of zero. –If a `red’ data triple was not a member of self, it was assigned the percentage of the detector set that it evaded. Data triples that evaded 100% of the AIS detector set and were not members of the self-set are consider holes (Type-II Errors)
The swarms with the local neighborhood performed better that those with global neighborhoods In terms of PT, those that used PT found a greater number of holes and had a greater number of duplicates. RB did not provide any performance improvement. The visualization of SW0+ and SW0 lead to the development of an improved detector represenatation.