Kyoto Protocol Reduce greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 and methane) to 5% below 1990 levels by 2008 Forestry: Can offset emissions by sequestering carbon Only applies to reforestation or afforestation in developing countries In developed countries, 5 % of emissions can be offset
NPP estimation from FIA plots Jenkins, J.C., Birdsey, R.A., and Pan, Y. 2001. Biomass and NPP estimation for the mid-Atlantic (USA) region using plot-level forest inventory data. Ecological Applications 11: 1174-1193.
Quantifying Carbon Storage: Multiple components and fluxes
Dendrometer bands on all tally trees are used to measure wood increment over periods shorter than standard FIA remeasurement interval. Measurements are made annually (major growth occurs in the spring).
Eight litterbaskets are placed on each plot (2 baskets per subplot) where they do not interfere with other indicator measurements. Litterfall data are collected at one-two month intervals year-round. Annual results are calculated per plot as the mean of these litter measurements.
Potential aboveground forest biomass (Mg ha -1 )
Schimel et al. (2000). Contribution of increasing CO 2 and climate to carbon storage by ecosystems in the United States. Science 287: 2004-2006.
Yield vs. Carbon Storage in Northern Hardwoods 40 cm max. 50 cm max.80-100 cm max. Maximized volume production Selection harvest + old-growth structure after multiple cutting cycles Maximized large sawtimber volume and value growth Low CarbonMedium Carbon High Carbon
0 % 100 %80 % 20 %80 % 20 % Removal at Harvest Retention at Harvest Entries per Rotation Age Classes 1 2 - 3 4 or more Even-aged (1 class) Multi-aged (2-3 classes) Uneven-aged (4 or more classes) Figure from Franklin et al. (1997) Variable Retention Harvest System
Estimates of potential carbon credit values range from $2 to $60 per ton of C. Kyoto agreement not yet ratified, so future value not yet established. Could increase substantially as international carbon markets develop Foresters can view carbon revenue as supplemental in managed forests. Carbon value co-varies with saw timber quality, so this may be an advantageous management approach where high yield fiber production is not the dominant objective Carbon Revenue
Collins Pine, Inc., California Lands 95,000 acres in northern CA, 75,000 acres in southern OR Produce 75 and 40 million board feet annually respectively Public hiking (including special buffer along the Pacific Crest Trail) and camping allowed Full protection for streams and wetlands Enrolled in carbon credit trading
Collins Pine, Inc. Pennsylvania lands 126,000 acres Produces 20 million board feet per year of high quality timber Public hiking and camping allowed Full protection for streams and wetlands Enrolled in carbon credit trading