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Lecture 38 Lasers Final Exam next week
LASER L ight A mplification by S timulated E mission of R adiation
Electronic Energy Levels Energy e-e- e-e- Fluorescence or ‘Spontaneous Emission’ e-e- e-e-
Stimulated Emission Energy e-e- e-e- The stimulated emission has the same frequency and phase as the incoming photon
3 level system e-e- ‘Short’ lifetime ‘long’ lifetime
Stimulated Emission Light Amplifier Pump (does not need to be light) Gain medium can be gas, liquid, or solid All light is in phase and has the same frequency
Laser Cavity Once the amount of gain is equal to the cavity losses, ‘lasing’ happens Losses can include output coupler, reflectivity, other optics in cavity
Cavity modes The mirrors force the amplitude of the wave to zero. Only integral number of half wavelengths can exist. Every wave exits in phase
Allowed frequencies It is a combination to the energy spread and the cavity modes
Laser pulse generation PC “Q-switching”, ns pulses “Mode-locking”, fs pulses Cavity length ~1.5m Gain medium Q= 2 *Energy stored Energy Lost per cycle
Transverse Modes The 00 mode is the smallest….
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ight mplification of ight mplification of ight mplification of timulated ight mplification of timulated.
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