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Chair - Vince Smith Diversification - non-vertebrates Contributed papers - Oklahoma B 3.30 PM - 5.00 PM.

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Presentation on theme: "Chair - Vince Smith Diversification - non-vertebrates Contributed papers - Oklahoma B 3.30 PM - 5.00 PM."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chair - Vince Smith Diversification - non-vertebrates Contributed papers - Oklahoma B 3.30 PM PM

2 Jan Stefka & Vince Smith A hitchhikers guide to the Galápagos Co-phylogeography of Galápagos mockingbirds and their parasites

3 BALTRA South Seymour BARTOLOMÉ Bartholomew ESPAÑOLA Hood FERNANDINA Narborough FLOREANA Charles GENOVESA Tower ISABELA Albemarle MARCHENA Bindloe NORTH SEYMOUR PINZÓN Duncan PINTA Abingdon RÁBIDA Jervis SAN CRISTÓBAL Chatham SANTA CRUZ Indefatigable SANTA FÉ Barrington SANTIAGO San Salvador 0100(km) 060(m) The Galapágos archipelago 5-9 MYA c. 2-3 MYA YA Further SE up to 80 MYA? c. 1-2 MYA

4 0100(km) 060(m) The progression rule Youngest Islands Oldest Islands Patterns of colonization & diversification linked to geological history Shallowest node coalescences Deepest node coalescences

5 BALTRA South Seymour BARTOLOMÉ Bartholomew ESPAÑOLA Hood FERNANDINA Narborough FLOREANA Charles GENOVESA Tower ISABELA Albemarle MARCHENA Bindloe NORTH SEYMOUR PINZÓN Duncan PINTA Abingdon RÁBIDA Jervis SAN CRISTÓBAL Chatham SANTA CRUZ Indefatigable SANTA FÉ Barrington SANTIAGO San Salvador 0100(km) 060(m) Galapágos endemics

6 Galapágos mockingbirds Mimus spp.

7 Host systematics Host mockingbirds Mimus sp. traditional taxonomy M. trifasciatus Floreana M. macdonaldi Hood M. parvulus M. melanotis San Cristobal East S.East Middle + North West mtDNA (Arbogast et al, 2006), colonization MYA mtDNA phylogeny

8 Galapágos mockingbirds Islands Mist nets & potter traps Wing vein puncture Ectoparasites collected by dust ruffling

9 Mockingbird ectoparasites Amblyceran louse Myrsidea nesomimi 11 islands Ischnoceran louse Brueelia galapagensis 6 (smaller) islands Analgid mite Analges sp. 11 islands Myrsidea Brueelia Analges

10 Questions AnalgesMyrsidea Mockingbirds Brueelia Are the host & ectoparasite evolutionary histories congruent? Where there is discordance, can we explain it Biogeography To what extent do these diversifications match the successional origins of the islands (progression rule) What are the evolutionary histories of these lineages

11 Data Homologous 1050 bp fragment COI sequenced in the mockingbirds and all 3 parasite taxa + outgroups Complementary nuclear EF1α sequenced in Brueelia & Analges (not informative in Myrsidea) 400 Mimus individuals covering the 11 sampled islands genotyped using microsatellites Analyses NJ, ML and BI phylogenetic analyses Haplotype network built using TCS Mockingbird microsats analysed via Bayesian clustering algorithm in Structure *BEAST to compare mutation rates, infer a multi-species tree from gene trees, & estimate dates of speciation GeoPhylo and Google Earth to visualize genetree congruence

12 Mockingbirds COI 107 sequences (25 haplotypes) Island populations often single haplotypes (Floreana) Largely congruent with traditional taxonomy Basal split separates SE pop. from rest No regular migration between islands (Structure analysis) Incongruence with ectos must have another explanation (eg ancestral polymorphism) ML tree SE

13 Feather mites (Analges) COI 86 sequences (71 haplotypes), most diverse ecto. Haplotypes exclusive to each island (*GbE) Broadly maps to host phylogeny, SE root Fastest mutation rate (9x Mimus) SE

14 Amblyceran lice (Myrsidea) COI 98 sequences (37 haplotypes) Broadly maps to host phylogeny, basal SE clade Island groups monophyletic & well supported But less pop. structure than mites Several haplotypes shared across islands Champion & Santa Fe relationship (recent migration perhaps by unknown louse vector) Mutation rate approx 2x Mimus

15 Ischnoceran lice (Brueelia) SENW Dispersal via hitchhiking on hippoboscids? B. galapagensis contaminant on Small Ground Finch Inter-island migration of Small Ground Finch with hippoboscids carrying lice? Geospiza fuliginosa 45 sequences (8 haplotypes) Very low levels of genetic diversity Island populations comprise 1-3 haplotypes Some genetic isolation between islands

16 Cophylogeny Wide confidence intervals on node ages Indicative of the sequence of speciation SE split 1.53 Mya on multi-species tree Multi-species tree agrees with traditional Mockingbird taxonomy & geological history Incongruence best seen in Google Earth visualization *BEAST (node age & multi-species tree) Single calibration - Espanola (mean 2.9 Mya, SD 0.9)

17 Geophylogeny GeoPhylo ML gene trees Lat. long. data KML file Google Earth Google Earth

18 Summary Evolutionary histories of Mimus & 2 ectoparasites (Analges & Myrsidea) broadly congruent These diversifications can be explained by the successional origins of the islands (progression rule) and co-diversification of ectoparasite lineages Low genetic variability & lack of co-phylogeographic congruence in one ectoparasite lineage (Brueelia) May be explained by life history traits of Brueelia linked to phoretic dispersal Read more shortly at: Stefka et al A hitchhikers guide to the Galapagos: co-phylogeography of Galapagos mockingbirds and their parasites. BMC Evolutionary Biology (accepted pending revision)

19 Acknowledgements...and Douglas Adams Paquita Hoeck and Lukas Keller (Zoological Museum, University of Zurich, Switzerland) who provided host and parasite samples and some microsat. data. European Union FP7 Marie Curie Fellowship program.


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