2 Memory Is …The mechanism we use to create, maintain and retrieve information about the pastIntroductory slide to emphasis the important functions of memory. Discuss what life would be like with no memory.
3 Processes in Memory Encoding Storage Retrieval Processes used to store information in memoryStorageProcesses used to maintain information in memoryRetrievalProcesses used to get information back out of memory
4 Methods Used to Study Memory Which type of memory test would you rather have?An essay or a multiple choice exam?The difference between these two types of tests captures the difference between a recall task and a recognition testMost students prefer a multiple choice exam. Ask them why? Typically they say it is easier to recognize the correct answer. You then can lead the discussion to the difference between recall and recognition tests.
5 Methods Used to Study Memory Free RecallRecall all the words you can from the list you saw previouslyCued RecallRecall everything you can that is associated with the Civil WarParticipants are given a cue to facilitate recallSerial RecallRecall the names of all previous presidents in the order they were electedNeed to recall order as well as item names
6 Recognition Tasks Circle all the words you previously studied Indicate which pictures you saw yesterdayThe participant selects from a list of items they have previously seen
7 Implicit Versus Explicit Memory Tasks Involves conscious recollectionParticipant knows they are trying to retrieve information from their memoryImplicit memory tasksRequire participants to complete a taskThe completion of the task indirectly indicates memory
8 Implicit Memory Tasks Participants are exposed to a word list Tiger LionZebraPandaLeopardElephantAfter a delay…Participants then complete word puzzles, they are not aware they are a type of memory testWord fragment Completion:C_E_TA_E_E_ _A_ N__ E _ R AWord Stem Completion:Mon _____Pan_____No connection is made to the previously studied list. Participants are simply asked to make a word out of the word fragment.Some of the answers will be words the participant has seen before. Some of the fragments will be words they have not seen. Fragment completion rates of the previously seen words are then compared to completion rates of unseen words. The difference between the scores indicates memory.Answers to Word fragment completion: Cheetah, elephant, zebra; Word stem completion answers: Monkey, Panda.
9 Procedural Memory Knowing how to do something Ride a bike Skateboard Skiing
10 Methods to Assess Procedural Memory Rotary-Pursuit taskKeep stylus on a dot on a rotating diskMirror-tracing taskWatch mirror image to trace a figure
11 Process-Dissociations in Memory Single dissociationsSingle variable effects one expression of memory, explicit or implicit, but not the other.Double dissociationsSingle variable has opposite effects on explicit and implicit memory.Demonstrate that two processes are mediated by separate brain systems.
12 Models of Memory Represent ways that memory has been conceptualized Atkinson & Shiffrin’s 3 Stage Model of MemoryCraik & Lockhart’s Level of Processing ModelBaddeley’s Working Memory ModelTulving’s Multiple Memory Systems ModelMcClelland & Rumelhart’s Connectionist Model
13 Traditional Model of Memory Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) 3 Stage ModelShort -TermStoreLong -TermStoreSensory StoreStimuliInformation Processing Model
14 Sperling (1960) Iconic Memory Research Whole report procedureFlash a matrix of letters for 50 millisecondsIdentify as many letters as possibleParticipants typically remembered 4 lettersPartial Report ProcedureParticipants are told to report bottom rowParticipants were able to report any row requested
15 Sperling Sensory Memory Demonstration A matrix of 12 letters and numbers will be briefly flashed on the next few slidesAs soon as you see the information, write down everything you can remember in its proper locationThe following demonstration was created by Thomas P. Pusateri (2004) for Thomson/Wadsworth.
16 Whole ReportHere’s where the letters and numbers will appear-- Keep your eyes on the “X” on the next slideX X X XInstructor Note: Once the students have written down all they can remember just click the mouse to see the matrix and determine how many items the students remember.
19 Partial Report – No Delay For the next demonstration, report only the top, middle, or bottom row. The row to report will be identified by markers IMMEDIATELY after you see the letters.X X X XInstructor Note: Once the students have written down all they can remember just click the mouse to see the matrix and determine how many items the students remember.
22 Averbach & Coriell (1961) Iconic Memory Research N M L C W D P QA X I N Y K J U- Showed matrix for 50 msec- Place a small mark above a letter at different delaysResults indicated that as many as 12 letters could be stored insensory memoryBackward visual masking was also discovered with this techniqueDemonstration and discussion of Averbach & Coriell (1961) study. Just click and the demonstration will begin. See if students can correctly recall the letter F.Click again to see the full matrix and discuss the experiment.
23 G E U L M F S X W P M B D H J Y Second Demonstration - Showed matrix for 50 msec- Place a small mark above a letter at different delaysResults indicated that as many as 12 letters could be stored insensory memoryBackward visual masking was also discovered with this techniqueDemonstration and discussion of Averbach & Coriell (1961) study. Just click and the demonstration will begin. See if students can correctly recall the letter F.Click again to see the full matrix and discuss the experiment.
24 Sensory Stores Iconic store or Visual sensory register Holds visual information for 250 msec longerInformation held is pre-categoricalCapacity – up to 12 itemsInformation fades quicklyEcon or Auditory sensory registerHolds auditory information for 2-3 seconds longer to enable processing
25 Short-Term Memory Attention Rehearsal Retrieval Rehearsal Attend to information in the sensory store, it moves to STMRehearsalRepeat the information to keep maintained in STMRetrievalAccess memory in LTM and place in STMShort TermMemory (STM)AttentionStorage & Retrieval
26 Research on Short-Term Memory Miller (1956)Examined memory capacity7+/- 2 items or “chunks”Chunking - organize the input into larger unitsExceeds capacityReorganize by chunking.Student using a chunking strategy can use LTM of important dates to remember a longer string of numbers.College GraduationBirth-yearH.S graduation
27 Storage Capacity of STM Vogel, Woodman & Luck (2001)Used colors and orientations
28 Vogel, Woodman & Luck Results(2001) Can retain 3-4 colors or orientationsStores integrated objects, not just features
30 Bahrick’s Research on Very Long Term Memory High school year books containing all of the names and photos of the students were used to assess memory392 ex-high school students (17-74) took 4 different memory tests:Free recall of the namesA photo recognition test where they were asked to identify former classmatesA name recognition testA name and photo matching testFor some of the participants, it was as long as 48 years since they graduated from High schoolBahrick, H. P., Bahrick, P.O., & Wittlinger, R. P. (1975). Fifty years of memory for names and faces: A cross-sectional approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 104(1),
31 Bahrick et. al., (1975) Results 90% accuracy in face and name recognition after 34 years80% accuracy for name recognition after 48 years40% accuracy for face recognition after 48 years60% accuracy for free recall after 15 years30% accuracy for free recall after 30 yearsNote how the recognition results differ from the free recall results.
32 Levels of Processing Model of Memory Craik & Lockhart (1972)Different ways to process information lead to different strengths of memoriesDeep processing leads to better memoryelaborating according to meaning leads to a strong memoryShallow processing emphasizes the physical features of the stimulusthe memory trace is fragile and quickly decaysDistinguished between maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsalCraik, F.I.M., & Lockhart, R.S. (1972). Levels of processing. A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 11,
33 Support for Levels of Processing Craik & Watkins (1973)Participants listened to lists of wordsTask was to recall the last word in the list which began with a particular letterThe number of intervening words between words beginning with the target letter was variedAssumptionWhenever a word beginning with the target letter would be encountered, it would be maintained via rehearsal in STM until the next word beginning with the target letter was heard.
34 Craik & Watkins (1973) Results Recall of words was independent of the length of time (the number of intervening words) it was maintained in STMConclusion: Maintenance rehearsal did not automatically lead to LTMLevels-of-Processing Interpretation: Students rehearsed the words without elaborating on the meaning of the words, only concentrating on the initial consonant sound—rehearsing at a shallow level
35 Support for Levels of Processing Craik & Tulving (1975)Participants studied a list in 3 different waysStructural: Is the word in capital letters?Phonemic: Does the word rhyme with dog?Semantic: Does the word fit in this sentence? The ______ is delicious.A recognition test was given to see which type of processing led to the best memory
37 Criticisms of LOP Model Circular definition of levelsTransfer appropriate processing effectMorris, Bransford, and Franks (1977)Two processing tasks: semantic vs. rhymeTwo types of tests: standard yes/no recognition vs. rhyme test Memory performance also depends on the match between encoding processes and type of testEncoding TaskRecognitionRhymeSemantic0.830.310.620.49
38 Baddeleys’ Working Memory Model Central ExecutiveArticulatory LoopVisual ScribeVisuo-spatialSketch PadPhonologicalStoreEpisodic BufferBaddeley (1986)Baddeley’s model of working memory contains several elements: A central executive, auditory working memory, visuo-spatial working memory, and an episodic Buffer.Material can also enter conscious workspace from long-term memory.
39 Working Memory Model Articulatory Loop Visuo-spatial Sketch Pad Used to maintain information for a short time and for acoustic rehearsalVisuo-spatial Sketch PadUsed for maintaining and processing visuo-spatial informationEpisodic BufferUsed for storage of a multimodal code, holding an integrated episode between systems using different codes
40 Working Memory Model Central Executive Focuses attention on relevant items and inhibiting irrelevant onesPlans sequence of tasks to accomplish goals, schedules processes in complex tasks, often switches attention between different partsUpdates and checks content to determine next step in sequence of parts
41 Working Memory Model Support Baddeley (1986)Participants studied two different list types1 syllable: wit, sum, harm, bay, top5 syllables: university, opportunity, aluminum, constitutional, auditoriumReading rate seemed to determine recall performanceSupports conceptualization of an articulatory loop
42 Working Memory Model Support Visuo-spatial Sketch PadDual-task paradigmSketchpad can be disrupted by requiring participants to tap repeatedly a specified pattern of keys or locations while using imagery at the same time
43 Techniques Examining Working Memory Fig. 5.5: Tasks and working memory.
44 Tulving’s Multiple-Memory Systems Model Semantic MemoryGeneral knowledgeFacts, definitions, historical datesEpisodic MemoryEvent memories (first kiss, 6th birthday)Procedural MemoryMemories on how to do something (skiing, biking, tying your shoe)
45 Multiple-Memory Systems Model Support Nyberg, Cabeza, & Tulving (1996)PET technology to look at episodic and semantic memoryAsked people to engage in semantic or episodic memory tasks while being monitored by PET Results Left (hemisphere) frontal lobe differentially active in encoding (both) and in semantic memory retrievalRight (hemisphere) frontal lobe differentially active in retrieval of episodic memoryNyberg, L., Cabeza, R., & Tulving, E. (1996). PET studies of encoding and retrieval: The HERA model. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3,
46 Connectionist Perspective Parallel distributed processing modelMemory uses a networkMeaning comes from patterns of activation across the entire networkSpreading Activation Network ModelSupported by priming effects
47 Koriat & Goldsmith (1996)Suggest a change in the metaphors used to conceptualize memoryPropose a correspondence metaphorEmphasize function of memoryEmphasize how memory works in real worldKoriat, A., & Goldsmith, M. (1996). The correspondence metaphor of memory: Right, wrong, or useful? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 19,
48 Exceptional Memory Case studies of mnemonists Studies of skilled memory
49 Case Studies S. (Luria, 1968) Rajan Mahadevan Long strings of words Remembered over yearsRajan MahadevanCan recite pi to 31,811 placesNo forgetting on matrices up to 20x20 digitsOriginal studies documenting exceptional memory case studiesLuria A.R. (1968). The mind of the mnemonist. New York: Basic Books.Thompson, C. P., Cowan, T., Frieman, J., Mahadevan, R. S. Vogl, R. J., & Frieman, J. (19910, Rajan: A report on an exceptional memory. Memory and Language, 30,
50 Deficient Memory Amnesias Retrograde Amnesia Infantile Amnesia Loss of memory for events that occurred before the traumaInfantile AmnesiaInability to recall events of young childhoodAntereograde AmnesiaNo memory for events that occur after the trauma
51 Amnesia StudiesStudy antereograde amnesiacs using implicit and explicit memory testsAmnesiacs show normal priming (implicit), but poor recognition memory (explicit)They did not remember having seen the word list, but completed the word fragments at the same rate as normals
52 Alzheimer’s DiseaseLeads to memory loss and dementia in older populationAtrophy of the cortical tissueAlzheimer brains shows abnormal fibers that appear to be tangles of brain tissue and senile plaques (patches of degenerative nerve endings)The resulting damage of these conditions may lead to disruption of impulses in neuronsOver the age of 65 are labeled ‘late onset’‘Early onset’ is rare but can affect those in their mid 30's and in middle age
53 Alzheimer’s Disease Symptoms (Gradual, Continuous & Irreversible) Memory lossProblems doing familiar tasksProblems with languageTrouble knowing the time, date, or placePoor or decreased judgmentProblems with abstract thinkingMisplacing things often, such as keysChanges in mood and behaviorChanges in personalityThese symptoms could be an early sign of Alzheimer's when it affects daily life
54 Hippocampus and Memory Critical for integration and consolidationEssential for declarative memoryWithout the hippocampus only the learning of skills and habits, simple conditioning, and the phenomenon of priming can occur