CONGRATS… You made it through 300A!!! Lecture 1 – Your Proposal.
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CONGRATS… You made it through 300A!!! Lecture 1 – Your Proposal
What is a research proposal? Everything with the exception of the data!!! Background Hypothesis Method (subs, apparatus, procedure) Results Discussion
Scientific Method ? Idea Question Observations That place they call the “Library” Develop idea into hypothesis Deductive Reasoning Basic vs Applied “If” “Then” Theories & Models Reporting Results: Class, scientific meeting, publication Design: procedures, stats Subjects etc FUN PART Experiment – collection of data Fun but HARD Data Analysis - Statistics Interpretation: Develop new theory or support old Parsimony what do you predict
1.Research Question Do “lit” search (300A!!!!) 2. Develop hypothesis …already been asked? …already hypothesized? 3. What methods have already been used? 1. Idea Question?
Theory Hypothesis confirm observations Bottom Up - Inductive Top Down – Deductive observation Look for patterns hypothesis theory
You will be required to use a true experimental design…which of course includes the following: 1)One or more hypothesis 2)Includes at least 2 “levels” of IV (for this class, at least 2 IVs) 1)Random assignment 2)Procedures for testing hypothesis 3)Controls for major threats to internal validity (discussion) +++++++++ Plus a hypothesis involving a relationship between variables Experimental Design (5 characteristics)
Develop the problem statement Define IV & DV Develop research hypothesis Identify a population of interest Random sampling & Random assignment Specify procedures (methods) Anticipate threats to validity Create controls Specify Statistical tests Ethical considerations Experimental Design Clear Experimental Design…OD…OD….OD
Applied or Basic Research??? Generate info that can be applied directly to the solution to a “real world” problem Are not concerned with application Investigates issues relevant to “confirmation” or “disconformation” of a theory or empirical position vs
Between or Repeated Measures / Within Subs Design??? Control error variance = individual diff. No diff. due to sampling error! Fewer subjects are needed! More sensitive to find effect… But carryover effects???
Is it All Observable Behavior??? Facts Children Playing Adults Interaction Physiological responses (HR, GSR) Rats eating vs Constructs Memory Intelligence Love Attitudes Emotions Empirical Observations = collecting data Inferences = CONSTRUCTS non observable not a fact defined by us
Nonscientific Naturalistic Observation Case Study Correlational Research Quasi-experimental Research Experimental Research Types of Research (approach to gathering data) Level of Constraint HI LOW Level of Constraint: control = more precision
Research Ethics Human Subjects Institutional Review Board (HSIRB) - Consists of members of community & peers - Review research proposals – Yea or Nay - Assure that project meets ethical standards (set by APA. NIH & institution) Informed Consent: a form that provides the subject with enough info to make an “informed” decision Debriefing? Confederates?
Institutional Care and Use of Animal Committee (IACUC) Research Ethics Veterinarian, non scientist, scientist/researcher Housing, care & use