Stabilizing emissions with existing technologies
1 GtC/yr 50 years Total = 25 Gigatons carbon A “solution” to the CO 2 problem should provide at least one wedge. Cumulatively, a wedge redirects the flow of 25 GtC in its first 50 years. This is 2.5 trillion dollars at $100/tC.
What Carbon Tax would enable alternatives?? Form of Energy Equivalent to $100/tC Natural gas $1.50/1000 scf Crude oil$12/barrel Coal $65/U.S. ton Gasoline 25¢/gallon (ethanol subsidy: 50¢/gallon) Electricity from coal2.2¢/kWh (wind and nuclear subsidies: 1.8 ¢/kWh) Electricity from natural gas1.0¢/kWh Today’s US energy system~ $150 Billion/yr (~1% of GDP) $100/tonC ~current EU carbon trading market price
Zero-Carbon Renewable Energy Sources *Hydroelectricity: Cheap but limited, established *Wind, Tidal: Roughly cost effective, also limited *Geothermal: Limited, difficult, needs new ideas for converting low-grade heat. *Ocean Thermal: Very diffuse *Solar: Unlimited, still too expensive, but very promising (low grade solar heat already)
. US Dept of Energy Research Plan Hydrogen from Natural Gas Although hydrogen from natural gas is certainly a viable near-term option, it is not viewed by DOE as a long-term solution because it does not help solve the green house gas (GHG) or energy security issues. Hydrogen from Coal Research is focused on advancing the technologies needed to produce hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gas and to build and operate a zero emissions, high-efficiency co-production power plant that will produce hydrogen from coal along with electricity. Hydrogen from Nuclear Power Research is focused on developing the commercial-scale production of hydrogen using heat from a nuclear energy system. Hydrogen from Renewable Resources Research is focused on developing advanced technologies for producing hydrogen from domestic renewable energy resources that minimize environmental impacts..
Nuclear Energy? Fission: Resource Size? Ocean water vs. Breeder Waste Disposal Security, Proliferation Issues Cost Issues Fusion (in 50 years??) Unlimited Supply Technology hurdles Much smaller waste issues
ethanol Brazilian President ‘Lula’ running on ethanol.
Sugar cane: Brazil achieves energy independence.
Arnold leads the way to a clean energy future “I ask you to set to motion the means to free ourselves from oil and from OPEC. I ask you to encourage the free market to overthrow the old order. California has the muscle to bring about such change. I say--USE IT!
Initiative 937 In 2006, Washington voted YES for a cleaner energy future
~80 % reduction needed to stabilize climate WA 2000 W/sited plants plantsW/sited Mc/Lieb 2010 2010Mc/Lieb Kyoto Kyoto2008-12 2008-12 StabilizationStabilization
More than 360 US cities (~55 million people) have joined Seattle Mayor Nichols’climate challenge to meet Kyoto Protocol’s emission reductions (7% below 1990 levels by 2012)
For longer distances: The Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle You can now drive the first 40 miles on the overnight charge (no gas), with overall fuel efficiency increasing to more than 100 mpg ! www.calcars.org