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Chapter 6: Basic Motivation Concepts

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1 Chapter 6: Basic Motivation Concepts
Motivation = “The processes that account for an individual’s direction, intensity and persistence of effort toward achieving a goal” Direction = should benefit the organization (i.e. quality of effort counts!) Intensity = how hard an employee tries Persistence = how long can an employee maintain his/her effort? Note: the goal is an “organizational” goal

2 Early Theories of Motivation

3 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

4 Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor)

5 Two-Factor Theory Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are related to job dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors = when these are adequate, workers “feel OK” (i.e. they are NOT dissatisfied). Motivators = examines factors contributing to job satisfaction. Thus, there are factors which lead to job satisfaction and things that don’t.

6 Contemporary Theories
Alderfer's “ERG” Theory Existence Relatedness Growth This theory does not assume a rigid hierarchy like Maslow's. For example, all 3 of these could be operating at the same time.

7 McClelland's Theory of Needs
The Need for Achievement: the drive to excel, achieve in relation to a set of standards, strive to succeed. The Need for Power: The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. The Need for Affiliation: The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.

8 Cognitive Evaluation Theory

9 Goal -Setting Theory The theory that specific and difficult goals lead to higher performance. Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be expended. Specific goals (not “do your best”) increase performance; that difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals; and that feedback leads to higher performance than does non-feedback.

10 Reinforcement Theory A counterpoint to the goal-setting theory.
In reinforcement theory, a “behavioristic” approach, which argues that reinforcement conditions behavior. Reinforcement theorists see behavior as being behaviorally caused. Reinforcement theory ignores the inner state of the individual and concentrates solely on what happens to a person when he or she takes some action.

11 Equity Theory Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond so as to eliminate any inequities (this is the “motivation” component) Equity theory recognizes that… individuals are concerned not only with the absolute amount of rewards for their efforts, but also with the relationship of this amount to what others receive. Historically, equity theory focused on: Distributive justice or the perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals. However, equity should also consider procedural justice or the perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards.

12 Expectancy Theory

13 Performance Dimensions

14 Summary and Implications for Managers
Need Theories Maslow’s hierarchy, Two factor, ERG, & McClelland’s Goal Setting Theory Clear and difficult goals often lead to higher levels of employee productivity. Reinforcement Theory Good predictor of quality and quantity of work, persistence of effort, absenteeism, tardiness, and accident rates.

15 Summary (continued) Equity Theory
Strongest when predicting absence and turnover behaviors. Weakest when predicting differences in employee productivity. Expectancy Theory Focus on performance variables It is a “rational” model so be careful when using it This theory may be better applied to employees with greater discretion in their jobs (i.e., as opposed to semi-skilled positions)

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