# SCIENTIFIC METHOD Observe some aspect of the universe. Invent a tentative description, called a hypothesis, that is consistent with what you have observed.

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SCIENTIFIC METHOD Observe some aspect of the universe. Invent a tentative description, called a hypothesis, that is consistent with what you have observed. Use the hypothesis to make predictions. Test those predictions by experiments or further observations and modify the hypothesis in the light of your results. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until there are no discrepancies between theory and experiment and/or observation.

INDUCTION Reasoning from observations to general principles Foundation of forming hypotheses Essentially an educated guess

DEDUCTION Reasoning from general to the particular Cause and effect Basis for devising experiments based on hypotheses Model development: conceptual, numerical

EXPERIMENTAL METHOD CONTROL GROUP: the group where all factors are held constant EXPERIMENTAL GROUP: where one factor or treatment is varied Foundation of science

HYPOTHESIS Idea that is testable Must be falsifiable –Null hypothesis Can be disproved Can never be proved!

STATISTICS Famous Disraeli quote “There are lies, damned lies, and statistics.”

THEORY

THEORY A theory is a broad explanation that synthesizes many different once-unrelated observations, facts, and findings to explain natural processes or phenomena. Theories are very well-supported by available evidence and very widely accepted by the scientific community

THEORY The scientific community accepts a theory that stands up to continual testing and best explains the available evidence, and discards a theory that is inconsistent with current information. Theories provide a framework to explain the known information of the time, but are are subject to constant evaluation and updating.

SCIENTIFIC LAW Laws (ie: the Law of Gravity) are principles or generalizations about phenomena. A law is not an explanation. A theory would attempt to explain why the Law of Gravity operates as it does, but currently, there is no well-accepted 'Theory of Gravity'!

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